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Write A General Article On Peptides, The Amino Acid Components (Article Sample)



A peptide is a compound that is chemical in nature. It is basically made up of a number of amino acids. The smallest peptide is a dipeptide consisting of two amino acids. The number of amino acids ranges between approximately ten and fifty for peptides. Otherwise, peptides with ten or less amino acids are referred to as oligopeptides while those with over fifty amino acids are called proteins. Polypeptides are long chains of amino acids that are not branched. A number of polypeptides constitute a protein.
The amino acid components are joined together by bonds known as peptide bonds. A dipeptide has one peptide bond joining the two amino acids; a tripeptide has two peptide bonds joining the three amino acids and so on. These bonds tie the nitrogen atom of a particular amino acid to the carboxyl carbon atom of a different amino acid.
Peptides are important in the body as they work together with target cells bringing about regulation of the activities of different body systems. Proteins are broken down by enzymes to form peptides which then influence the body. Researchers have found different ways in which peptides affect the body such as through boosting immunity, hormonal activity and cell communication where they direct cells. Regardless of type, all peptides have cell communicating ability. This cell communicating ability is the basis for the creation of research peptides.
Peptides are produced in different ways and can thus be classified on this basis. Peptides are therefore divided into several classes, depending on how they are produced. These include;
* Ribosomal peptides – These are made through the translation of messenger RNA. This means that the amino acid residues concerned are strictly limited to those used by the ribosome. They are basically utilized as signalling molecules and hormones in higher organisms.
* Non ribosomal peptides – Unlike ribosomal peptides, this class is put together by enzymes that are particular to each peptide and not by the ribosome. They are most common in unicellular organisms. They are manufactured through non ribosomal peptide synthesis.
* Peptide fragments – These are protein sections used to classify or enumerate source proteins. They can be formed through natural effect degradation of paleontological or forensic samples. More commonly though, they are formed through enzymatic degradation of controlled samples.
* Milk peptides – They are naturally occurring and can either be formed during fermentation of milk because of the proteinases produced by lactobacilli or from the breakdown of the milk protein casein by digestive enzyme.
* Peptones – they come about due to the digestion of meat or animal milk via the process of proteolysis. They are mainly used to grow fungi and bacteria in nutrient media.
The evolution of synthetic peptides has seen to large strides made in the field of research. Research peptides are manufactured and sold specifically to be used for research purposes. There are various uses to which these peptides are being applied especially in research in the fields of biotechnology and medicine. The C-Peptide for example, helps monitor the production of insulin and the determination of causes of low blood sugar therefore serving a diag...
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