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Milk and bone fracture (Case Study Sample)

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This is a case study on the relationship between the consumption of milk and bone fracture. Contrary to this popular belief, studies have shown that intake of milk in adults has no significant effect on the health status of the bone. In fact, some studies have suggested that bone intake actually depletes the much needed calcium in the body, thereby making it weak and prone to fracture. source..
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Case study Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Case study Introduction Milk is not just the usual drink; it has become a cultural norm in most parts of the world which goes back to thousands of years. Currently the myths and misconception of milk is still loud and clear. In 2001, the average American child consumed 104 quarts of cow's milk. Due to the presence of calcium and phosphorous in milk, the intake of milk has been associated with improved bone health but contrary to this research has proved that this is just a myth and that the opposite is true. Milk is a rich food that is composed of all nutrients and micronutrients needed by the body. Milk comes in various forms such as whole milk, skimmed milk, cheese yoghurt, salami and so on. Skim milk in particular contains little or no fat as compared to whole milk. As a result it is usually recommended for individuals who want to lose weight and maintain a healthy body. Generally skim milk is less healthy than whole milk since it does not contain milk fat. It lacks fat soluble vitamins such as vitamin A and K. Apart of milk fat can be removed from whole milk to make semi-skim milk. Milk is composed of several minerals such as phosphorus. Skim milk is particularly a good source of phosphorus. Phosphorus is an essential mineral that accounts for up to 1 percent of the total body weight of a human being. This paper is focused on bringing out the relationship of milk and bone fracture. There those who strongly belief that increased intake of calcium in the form of the currently recommended three glasses of milk per day helps in preventing osteoporosis, which is defined as the weakening of bones due to low bone mass. Osteoporosis causes more than 1.5 million fractures of which 300,000 are broken hips. On the other hand there are those who belief that consuming a lot of milk and other dairy products will have little effect on the rate of fractures but may contribute to problems such as heart disease or prostate cancer. It is vital to have an understanding of the function of calcium in the body so as to help establish whether milk intake has any significant effect on bone fracture. Calcium Calcium is one of the trace elements needed by the body to perform the following functions: transmission of impulse in the nervous system; growth, development and maintenance of strong healthy bones and teeth, blood clotting mechanism, and the regulation of the heart's rhythm. Ninety-nine percent of the calcium in the human body is stored in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1 percent is found in the blood and other tissues. There are two ways in which the body gets calcium. One way is through taking dietary supplements that are rich in calcium. Rich sources of calcium include dairy products, green vegetables and dried beans. Dairy products contain the largest concentration of calcium per serving and have a high absorption rate in the body (Harvard School of Public Health). Calcium supplements are usually spiked with vitamin D so as to derive more health benefits. The second way in which the body gets calcium is from the bone reserves. When the calcium level in the blood goes down below the required amount, calcium in the bone is pulled out to restore the calcium level in the blood. Statement of the problem Consumption of milk as been linked to improved bone health for a long time making it one the most consumed product in the world. Milk contains calcium which is a major component of the bone mass. Contrary to this popular belief studies have shown that intake of milk in adults has no significant effect on the health status of the bone. In fact some studies have suggested that bone intake actually depletes the much needed calcium in the body thereby making it weak and prone to fracture. This paper aims at establishing facts relating to milk consumption and bone health by engaging people of different age groups in the research. Hypothesis Null hypothesis: Milk consumption has no significant effect on reducing bone fractures on people of all age groups. Alternate hypothesis: Consumption of milk has a significant effect on the reduction of bone fractures on people of all age group. Literature review Milk is associated with the depletion of calcium from bones The myth about health benefits of milk has spread all over the world. This misconception is based on the belief that milk is a protein and calcium-rich drink making it essential for supporting good overall health and bone health in particular at any age. The confusion arising from the health benefit of milk stems from the fact that it contains calcium. A cup of milk contains about 300 mg of calcium. Several scientific studies have shown an assortment of detrimental health effects directly linked to milk consumption. These scientific studies have shown a surprising fact contrary to the conventional belief relating to milk and bone health. Studies have shown that the intake of milk actually reduces the absorption of calcium in the bone. People rarely absorb calcium present in the cow's milk and it is even worse for pasteurized milk. This is a great irony since the studies further shows that it actually increases the loss of calcium in the bones. Animal proteins contain the acidic group which makes the body pH acidic as a result biological reaction is triggered. Calcium is one of the best neutralizing agents of acidity in the body. Calcium is stored in the bone marrow. What actually happens when a person takes milk is that calcium is released from the bone reserves so as to neutralize the acidic effect brought about by milk protein. Therefore the calcium that body needs for maintaining strong healthy bone and the general good health status of the body is used to neutralize acidity. Once calcium is removed from the bones, it is excreted from the body as urine. Therefore the net result of milk intake is deficit of calcium in the body. Statistics has proved this right since countries with the lowest consumption of dairy products also have the lowest fracture incidence in their population. Despite all these facts about the milk and health the majority of mainstream health practitioners ignore these proven facts. Most doctors usually recommend that increased intake of milk in case of osteoporosis (Burckhardt, 2007). The cow's milk is specifically tailored for calves. It is the best source of food for calves. Calves usually have an average weight of about 1000 pounds at birth but they weigh approximately eight times more at the time of weaning. After weaning they never attempt to take milk again which also applies to all the other mammalian species. This is a lesson that humans need to learn and stop their obsession with milk. Each mammalian species have their own type of m ilk that is specifically tailored to meet their needs. The milk of a cow particularly contains about thrice the amount of protein present in human milk which creates metabolic disturbances in humans that have detrimental bone health consequences. The mother's milk is the best source of nutrients for the human body but the same cannot be said of the cow's milk since its composition is different from humans (London, 2011). Minerals in Milk Milk is composed of several minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, selenium and zinc. These minerals occur in the form of salts in varying proportion in milk as follows; approximately 67% calcium, 44% phosphate and 35% magnesium salts. These salts are bound within the casein micelle and the remainders are soluble in the serum phase. The fact that calcium and phosphate are associated as salts bound with the protein does not affect the nutritional availability of either calcium or phosphate. Several studies have shown that calcium supplementation can retard bone loss among adult women. However, inconsistent results from prospective studies and interventions trials '4 have not provided strong support for a positive association between adult calcium intake and osteoporotic fractures. The fragility...
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