Discussion: Why Is It Difficult To Define The Concept Of Disaster? (Case Study Sample)
The paper has some guided question regarding disaster management.source..
Discuss why is it difficult to define the concept of disaster? Is it a moving target?
The cases of natural disasters have gone up globally in the recent years which have made the risk of disaster an international issue. Disasters have established significant fatalities t human race, the global economy as well as society. Thus, disaster can be defined as an unexpected event which brings about disruptions and chaos in human society, economy, material as well as environmental damages and losses. Disaster brings unexpected which tends to be beyond the control of humanity or the affected community to cope up with using their available resources.
Nonetheless, disaster is often defined in regards to its effects or origin, however with consideration to the fact that it does not have to be usually a prompt event yet it can build over a long time it is not easy to have a definite definition of disaster. According to Drabek (2016), some people or organisation can define disaster as a situation or an occurrence that devastates the ability of affected people while others will determine by its origin. Perry & Quarantelli (2005) Says that implementation of apt disaster risk reduction measures it is a significant constituent in the disaster management strategies. Hence, the disaster at times can be a moving target; it is never static that can be found in one place always. Thus, it aims at generating asymmetric insecurity on the target side by brings out distractions. When it comes to human-made disasters such as terrorism, deception approaches have ever been among the practical methods of the planner’s arsenal. An instance of blaming the victim is when floods wash the homes of poor people, and they are later accused of living in the area when the actual problem is the former building of houses in the area (Roberts, 2018). Surprising as well as uncertainty on the target always give the attacker inherent upper hand over the defenders who in most cases cannot figure out the next move of the attacker.
Analyze and discuss the role of culture and the design of civilization on the way disasters are perceived.
Irrespective of the losses and fatalities that are brought about by disasters, certain people including communities do not relate much consequence of the natural disaster. Meaning and risk perception about disaster not only relies on the threats it can bring about but also the nature of the activities and behaviours of different communities as well as individuals which are predetermined by customs. Within this context, Perry & Quarantelli (2005) examines the associations between culture and disaster. Perry & Quarantelli (2005) gives comprehensive literature about the role of culture and disaster by evaluating culture and its components as thoroughly explores a series of case studies in relation to disaster.
The significance of culture with regards to disaster had been seen on different occasions, for instance, the 9/11 US bombing and the Indian Ocean Tsunami. When the Tsunami hit the countries of South Asian some of the communities possessing the indigenous knowledge about Tsunami indeed successfully managed to survive while the tourists and the immigrants who lacked the same such essential understanding were massively survived.
Within the mainstream on disaster management, Perry & Quarantelli (2005) says that cultural components are often neglected during planning as well as the implementation of disaster management strategies. As confirmed by Chaffee & McLeod (2017) and Britton (2005a) failure to tackle cultural aspects might accelerate the vulnerabilities of a society or community towards disasters hence promote the development of ineffective approaches. Similarly, Britton (2005b) affirms that the role of cultural values including attitude as an impediment to the progress of disaster management has not been taken seriously by governments as well as aid agencies. For that reason, to further assess the effect of culture on disaster and management activities (Alexander, 2005a) has analysed much of cases studies including the 9/11 US attack. The typical outcome from such cases is that behaviour of individuals and communities when encountering unfavourable conditions along with their cultural elements determines the level of impacts or fatalities of the affected (Drabek, 2016).
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