Biology Test Paper: Virus-Mediated Transfer of Cellular Genetic Material From One Bacterial Cell to Another (Coursework Sample)
THE TASK WAS TO ANSWER 10 QUESTIONS AND WRITE AN ESSAY ON PALLIATIVE ON ONE OF THREE CATEGORIES OF PATIENTS; THE OLD, INFANTS, AND THE YOUTHS. THIS PAPER ANSWERS THE QUESTIONS AS INSTRUCTED─GIVING A BRIEF EXPLANATION WHERE APPLICABLE─AND DETAILS ON THE APPROACH TO PALLIATIVE CARE AMONG THE ELDERLY IN AUSTRALIA (ALSO PER THE INSTRUCTIONS).source..
Biology Test Paper: Section A; Multiple Choices.
Section B; Palliative Care Essay.
Section A; Multiple choices
1 Virus-mediated transfer of cellular genetic material from one bacterial cell to another
(A) transduction (N/A)
2 One strand of double-stranded DNA is mutated, changing all cytosines to uracils. After one round of replication of the mutated DNA strand, the melting temperature of the resulting DNA will:
(B) be lower. The temperature at which DNA denatures depends on the number of hydrogen bonds between the strands. Adenine and Thymine use two hydrogen bonds, while Guanine and Cytosine use three hydrogen bonds to pair. When a mutation changes all cytosines to uracils, only two hydrogen bonds will be used in the Uracil-Guanine pairs, lowering the melting temperature of the mutated DNA.
3 The Southern blotting technique is used for:
(B) the detection of DNA fragments on membranes by a radioactive DNA probe. (N/A)
4 Superoxide dismutase is an important enzyme for maintenance of red blood cells and is defective in some neurodegenerative diseases. What does this enzyme do?
(A) catalyzes the conversion of O2- to H2O2 and O2. (N/A)
5 Carboxymethyl cellulose is:
(D) a plant cell wall constituent. (N/A)
6 Targeted suppression of gene expression is achieved by:
(C) RNAi. RNAi is a naturally occurring system for gene regulation that silences particular genes. It is also used experimentally to stop the expression of specific genes using dsRNAs cleaved by the DICER enzyme to form siRNAs. The siRNAs bind to RISC, causing targeted sequences of mRNA to be cleaved, stopping their expression.
7 Cystic fibrosis is due to:
(A) defective chloride channel. Cystic fibrosis results when a mutation occurs in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance (CFTR) gene. This gene codes for CFTR protein, an AMP-regulated chloride channel located on the plasmalemma of many secretory cells in the body.
8 The main difference between active transport and facilitated diffusion is that:
(C) in active transport, energy is consumed to move molecules against a concentration gradient. (N/A)
9 In competitive inhibition
(A) Km increases, Vmax constant. Competitive inhibitors compete with the substrate for the active site, increasing Km. However, the Vmax remains constant because an increase in substrate concentration causes the reaction to proceed.
10 The endogenous GTPase activity of G-proteins serves to:
(D) hydrolyze GTP returning the G protein to a pre-stimulated level of activity. GTPase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes GTP to GDP. During signal transduction, the binding of a ligand to a G protein-binding receptor facilitates the activation of the G protein by exchanging a GDP on the α-subunit with GTP. To stop the process, the GTPase converts the active α-GTP to inactive α-GDP.
Section B; Palliative Care Essay
Patients with serious illnesses, for instance, cancer, require an approach in their care that is different from that for other patients. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2020), this dedicated treatment, called palliative care, is geared towards alleviating their suffering and raising the standard of their lives and their families. In a diversified environment such as Australia, palliative care becomes even more self-centered. Thus, it is more demanding as it requires healthcare givers to consider patients’ beliefs and respect their culture, determining how the recipients of this care want to be treated (Givler et al., 2020). Additionally, age plays a significant role in deciding how to care for a patient. For instance, in pediatric palliative care, a family-centered approach to care is more relevant than young adults and aged patients (Donovan et al., 2019). This technique requires the cooperation of the patient, their family, and caregivers. Consequently, these nurses need to care for the patient’s family as well emotionally. This essay will discuss the significance of age-relevant palliative care with a focus on the elderly Australian population.
Unlike in other patients where care is directed toward recovery, palliative care in the aged population aims at achieving comfort first, especially among those with advanced age or other underlying conditions. Besides the coughing, anorexia-cachexia syndrome, nausea, vomiting, etc., symptoms of life-threatening ailments, old patients also suffer due to their age. Therefore, these patients are constantly in pain and need care from familiar, trusted nurses who can provide the care required and advise them and talk with them about everyday things (Care & Planning, 2014).
Additionally, senior patients are deeply embedded in their beliefs (He et al., 2021), for example, about pain. Some take pain as a sign of recovery, and alleviating it might scare them. Some patients and their families believe that taking opioids to relieve pain is akin to euthanasia! Such patie
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