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Critically Discuss The History Of Education In Netherlands (Coursework Sample)

Instructions:

TASK: CRITICALLY DISCUSS THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN NETHERLANDS.
sample-detailed explanation of Netherlands' education system history

source..
Content:
UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION & EXTERNAL STUDIES
DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY
COURSE TITLE: EDUCATION PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
TASK: CRITICALLY DISCUSS THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN NETHERLANDS.
NAME: WILLIAM LUSIGE AKOTO
REG NO: E35/3162/2011
SUBMITTED TO: DR. NDOGONI
DATE OF SUBMISSION: 28TH NOVEMBER 2014
SIGNATURE: ………………..
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The Netherlands is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands that is formed by the Netherlands, the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba. It is located in north-western Europe. It borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east.
In many countries, the Netherlands is often referred to as "Holland". It is one of the most densely populated and geographically low-lying countries in the world and is famous for its dikes, windmills, wooden shoes, tulips, bicycles and social tolerance.
The country is host to the International Court of Justice (International Criminal Court). Amsterdam is the official capital as stated by the constitution, but The Hague is the seat of government, the home of the monarch and the location for most foreign embassies.
The Netherlands has a total population of 16.7 million (UN, 2010) and its major language is Dutch. The major religion is Christianity and it has a life expectancy of 78(men) and 83(women). Main exports from The Netherlands include metal manufacturing, chemicals and foodstuffs.
In terms of governance, the Netherlands is made up of the national government, the provincial government in charge of governing each of the 12 provinces of the Netherlands. Then there’s the municipal government in charge of the 443 municipalities and is responsible for day-to-day administration of the municipality and for implementing decisions taken by the central government and provincial authorities.
Although, compulsory education starts at the age of 5, most children start schooling at the age of 4. The participation in education of 5 to14-year-olds in the Netherlands is 99 per cent. Of the 15 to19-year-olds, 86 per cent attends school. The participation in education of 20 to 29-year-olds is 26 per cent. The participation in education of 30 to 39-year-olds in the Netherlands is 3 per cent.
2.0THE AIMS AND PURPOSES OF EDUCATION AT DIFFERENT LEVELS
The education system of Netherlands is differentiated into different levels. At each level, there are different aims to be attained by the learners. These can best be depicted as follows:
2.0.1 PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION
AIMS OF EDUCATION
(i) Stimulation of children’s social, cognitive and emotional development
Childcare facilities and playgroups offer young children the opportunity and the space to play and develop in the company of children their own age. The aim is to stimulate children’s social, cognitive and emotional development. There is no curriculum in childcare provision, but there is a trend towards developing pedagogical plans for day nurseries and playgroups.
Playgroups that offer pre-school programs have a more educational focus and include activities aimed at preparing children for school. The development stimulation programs used include educationally oriented activities in which children play with concepts related to literacy and numeracy. Language development is an area of special concern.
Childcare also enables parents to take part in activities outside the home, such as a course, training, schemes leading to employment, or paid employment.
(ii) Development of children from disadvantaged backgrounds
The aim of early childhood education is to stimulate the development of children from disadvantaged backgrounds, of either Dutch or non-Dutch descent, to improve their chances of success at school and a meaningful role in society in the future.
 
2.0.2 PRIMARY EDUCATION
The general aims and purposes of primary education are laid down in the Primary Education Act (WPO), which was last revised in 1998. As specified in this Act, primary education aims to:
(i) Promote the development of children’s emotions, intellect and creativity
Teaching must reflect the fact that pupils are growing up in a multicultural society therefore should equip students with skills and insights, such as behavior that shows respect for generally accepted norms and values, as well as knowledge of and respect for religious and other beliefs that play an important role in Dutch society. This will promote the development of children’s emotions, intellect and creativity as well as the acquisition of essential knowledge together with social, cultural and physical skills in an uninterrupted process of development.
(ii) Stimulation of active citizenship and social integrations
Primary education should stimulate active citizenship and social integration. In the case of children who need extra help, the aim is to provide this help as much as possible within the school. Teaching in special schools for primary education is, in addition, geared to enabling as many pupils as possible to return to mainstream education.
 
2.0.3 SECONDARY EDUCATION
Secondary education prepares pupils for their future in society. It contributes to pupils’ development, with attention and respect for the various religious, philosophical and social values that exist in Dutch society, and with an emphasis on the knowledge and skills needed to function well in society, as an individual, a citizen and a worker.
(i) To provide a broad general education and ensure cohesion between the various subjects and harmonization with the methods used in higher education. The aims of the upper years of HAVO and VWO are to provide a broad general education and to ensure cohesion between the various subjects and harmonization with the methods used in higher education.
Pre-university Education (VWO) is intended to prepare students for university education.
Senior General Secondary Education (HAVO) is intended as preparation for higher professional education (HBO).
Pre-vocational Secondary Education (VMBO) is intended as preparation for vocational education (mbo).
(ii) To prepare students to take part in the society activities independently.
Practical training (Pro) is intended for youngsters for whom a qualification at the lowest VMBO-level is out of reach. For them, preparation for transition to employment is the most important aim. Practical education also aims at preparing these pupils to be able to take part in society as independently as possible. Besides academic development (meeting the needs and possibilities of the individual learners), personal development and social competences are important learning domains.
2.0.4 TERTIARY EDUCATION
Higher education comprises higher professional education (HBO) and university education (WO). These types of education are provided by HBO institutions (“hogescholen”) and universities respectively.
Higher professional education (HBO) provides theoretical and practical training for occupations which require a higher vocational qualification. The HBO institutions provide higher professional education and may conduct research that is related to the programs they provide (applied research). They provide bachelor’s and master’s programs and transfer knowledge for the benefit of the community. They also contribute to the development of those occupations to which their teaching is geared.
University education comprises training in the independent pursuit of scholarship and/or the application of scholarly knowledge in the context of a profession. The core business of universities is to teach and to carry out research. They provide initial (i.e. first degree) courses, train researchers and design engineers, and transfer knowledge for the benefit of the community. University education includes both the study of academic disciplines and specialized training for certain occupations.
2.0.5 ADULT AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
Adult education is geared to furthering the personal development of adults and their participation in society (self-reliance). Knowledge, insight, skills and attitudes are developed in relation to the needs, opportunities and life experience of adults. Adult education can prepare individuals for vocational training and boost their personal and social roles.
The aim of secondary vocational education, as defined in the Adult and Vocational Education Act, is to provide both theoretical instruction and practical training in preparation for the practice of a wide range of occupations for which a vocational qualification is necessary or useful. It also furthers the general education and personal development of students and helps them to play an active part in society.
 
3.0 STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION
The education system in the Netherlands is structured as follows:
* Pre-primary education
* Primary education
* Secondary education
* Tertiary education
* Adult and vocational education
 
3.0.1 PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION
The Netherlands does not provide formal pre-primary educational provision. From the age of 4 onwards, children attend primary school. Although the mandatory school age is 5, almost all children (98%) begin school at age 4. For children under the age of 4 formal education is not provided, but there are various childcare facilities available outside the education system. The following organized facilities are available:
* Playgroups: these groups are open to all children aged 2 to 4, and are the most popular form of pre-primary education. Children usually attend playgroups twice a week, about 2-3 hours per visit. The main aim of playgroups is to allow children to meet and play with other children and to stimulate their development. At a national level, no educational goals have been defined fo...
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