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APA
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Literature & Language
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English (U.K.)
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Global Spread of English (Coursework Sample)

Instructions:

p‌‌‍‌‍‌‌‌‌‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍lease answer the 4 questions listed in Assignment requirement file. Please use only the attached references and put page nu‌‌‍‌‍‌‌‌‌‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍mber of the selected reference when you cite in the text. Please don't use other external resources just the articles attache‌‌‍‌‍‌‌‌‌‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍d

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Content:


Global Spread of English
Name
Institutional Affiliation
Global Spread of English
Question 1: Explain various causes of the global spread of English
The worldwide diffusion of the English language arose as a consequence of the migration of English-speaking people. The global spread of English started with the movement of native English language speakers from Great Britain to New Zeeland, Australia, and North America. English spread across the three countries before diffusing in other parts of the world. The diaspora of migration enhanced the worldwide diffusion of the English language through cultural adoptions. In this case, McKay & Hornberger (1996, p.72) highlights that native English speakers carried with them the language to the different parts they settled in after migration. The ancient English speakers from Great Britain brought with them the resources of the English language, which impacted the diffusion of English in Australia, New Zeeland, and North America. English language resources carried by the native speakers from North America changed the use of vernacular languages; the language became more sustainable and reliable than the language used “at home,” (McKay & Hornberger 1996, p. 72)
Besides, the diversification of the English language globally occurred through colonialism. According to Kachru & Nelson (2006, p. 9), the political and economic factors surrounded colonialism facilitated the global spread of the English language. during the colonial period. The movement of diverse groups of people speaking different languages facilitated the spread of English in Asia and across other parts of the world. During the colonial period, English speakers carried the language for the accomplishment of their businesses. Colonial officials used the English language to drive businesses and missionary works in the isolated colonies. Kachru & Nelson (2006, p.13) stress that the colonial context of Asia and Africa enhanced the spread of English across the world but only to a small extent. The language was brought into a new social-cultural context by a small number of uses during colonialism. The small population with the mastery of the English language resulted in the diffusion of English in extremely larger communities worldwide. Colonialism impacted local populations; thus, leading to the global diversification of the English language.
Question 2: Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the global spread of English
Advantages
The spread of the English language across the world creates a culture for lingual identity. The outer and expanding circles across different countries rely on the culture of English speakers; thus, McKay & Hornberger (1996, p.87) holds that English facilitates communication in businesses and aids communication in the social environment. The spread of the English language globally is significant because it acts as a tool and exponent of national identity. The nationality of individuals originates from the assessment of native languages used in communication. As such, countries using English as a native language can be identified easily just by the accent. Secondly, the spread of the English language impacted the emergence of technology and many forms of knowledge. Moreover, the power and ideology of the English language in transforming the world indicate its benefits to the globe. Further, the spread of the English language helps the researcher in familiarizing with the significance of education and the impact it has on societies (McKay & Hornberger (1996, p.88).
Disadvantages
In contrast, English is a colonial remnant; thus, it has no position in the contemporary national cultures. The spread of the English language across the globe reminds parts of the world of the bitter experiences subjected to them by colonialists. Africans, for instance, faced oppressions during the colonial era; therefore, the diffusion of the English language in the continent denies the population the sense of national identity. The monolingual use of English as a language limits cultural diversity; therefore, indicating its cons of negatively affecting the responsibilities of global citizens (Rubdy 2015, p. 47). Thirdly, the use of the English language is unprecedented. Meaning the functions of the language overlap those of local languages of communication. The English language promotes ethnic divisions of individuals based on nationality identification; the use of the language affects national unity and cohesion of races. The spread of the English language demeans the value of the language because the use of the language loses its initial meanings of national identity. Education has facilitated the spread of English to all corners of the world; thus, the languages distances people from practicing and mastering their local languages.
Questions 3: What are inner, outer, and expanding circle Englishes?
Expanding circles of English involve the regions and nations in which English is studied as a foreign language. The English language lacks administrative status in its expanding circles; however, such countries recognize English as a lingua franca. Countries in the expanding circles develop distinctive ways of using English. In most instances, Tajima (2010, p.51) highlights that the English language in expanding circles has an increasingly important function range that exposes the benefits of its global spread across the globe. The English language can be used as a marker of identity in expanding codification and sociolinguistic realism. The English language spread in the expanding circles as a result of foreign language learning.
All nations with British colonial ties define the outer circles of the global spread of the English language. Outer circles of English expose the language as the primary means of communication in the government sectors. Moreover, outer circle English countries use the language in social life. In simple terms, the outer circle of English includes all the countries that learned the language from the British Empire. English has played a crucial role in promoting popular culture, governance, and education in the outer circles of English-associated countries (Lin et al., 2002, p 298). All the post-colonial countries in which English replaced the local language in expanding the knowledge of citizens formulate the outer circles of English.
The inner circle of English represents the countries in which the English language is dominant. Alternatively, countries using the English language as the native and first language describes the inner circles of English. For example, Canada, New Zealand, Britain, and Australia include the inner circle of English countries (Phillipson & Skutnabb‐Kangas 1996, p. 432). However, inner circle English countries have no authenticity of claiming English as their language. The nations only enjoy the identification and connection of the global spread of English worldwide from their borders.
Question 4: Describe the typical features of outer circle Englishes
The outer circle of English has distinct features that separate it from the expanding and inner circles of Englishes. Outer English has typical features that distinguish it from the inner circle. Unlike the inner circle Englishes, the outer circle spread

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