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Week 1 Assignment: Explore the Logic of Experimental Design (Coursework Sample)


Week 1: Explore the Logic of Experimental Design

Due April 21 at 11:59 PM
In a paper, answer the following questions:
Jackson, S. L. (2012): Do the even-numbered Chapter Exercises on page 244:
2. You read in a health magazine about a study in which a new therapy technique for depression was examined. A group of depressed individuals volunteered to participate in the study, which lasted 9 months. There were 50 subjects at the beginning of the study and 29 at the end of the 9 months. The researchers claimed that of those who completed the program, 85% improved. What possible confounds can you identify in this study?
4. What are internal validity and external validity, and why are they so important to researchers?
6. What are the similarities and differences between within-subjects and matched-subjects designs?
1. What is the purpose of conducting an experiment? How does an experimental design accomplish its purpose?
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of an experimental design in a business study?
3. What is more important in an experimental study, designing the study in order to make strong internal validity claims or strong external validity claims? Why?
4. In an experiment, what is a control? What is the purpose of a control group? Of single or multiple comparison groups?
5. What are confounds? Give an example of a design that has three confounds. Describe three ways to alter the design to address these confounds and explain the advantages and disadvantages of each.
6. What does "cause" mean and why is it an important concept in research? How are correlation and causation related?
7. You are a researcher interested in addressing the question: Does smiling cause mood to rise (i.e., become more positive)? Sketch between-participants, within-participants, and matched-participants designs that address this question and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each to yielding data that help you answer the question. Describe and discuss each design in 4-5 sentences.
Support your paper with a minimum of 5 resources. In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources, including older articles, may be included.
Length: 5-7 pages not including title and reference pages
References: Minimum of 5 scholarly resources.
Your paper should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts that are presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your paper should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards. Review APA Form and Style.
• Jackson, S. L. (2012). Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. (Read Chapters 8 and 9)
o Link to Online Book:
o Click “Log In” in the top right corner
o Email Address:
o Password: Tylin2017
• Trochim, W., Donnelly, J., & Arora, K. (2016). Research methods: The essential knowledge base (2nd ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage. (Read Chapters 8 and 9)
o Link to Online Book:
o Click “Log In” in the top right corner
o Email Address:
o Password: Tylin2017
• Brown, J. S. (2010). Variable. SAGE. (PDF document attached)
• Fan, S. (2010). Independent variable. SAGE. (PDF document attached)
• Kovera, M. B. (2010). Confounding. SAGE. (PDF document attached)
• Pole, J. D., & Bondy, J. S. (2010). Control variables. SAGE. (PDF document attached)
• Salkind, N. J. (2010). Dependent variable. SAGE. (PDF document attached)


Experimental research design
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Part I
Question 2
Confounding occurs when two or more variables covary, meaning they vary together with time (Kovera, M. B, 2010). From the study the following confounds can be realized:
Testing effect
This confounding occurs when the participants in the survey are frequently tested, thus making them recover or get worse. The two possible likelihoods are likely to happen. This is because once a patient is repeatedly examined there is a chance that the progress could be better or be worse. In any of the two possibilities the patient might opt to drop the study when he or she recovers and also if the patient is getting worse he or she can't proceed with the investigation. The dropping effect leads to variation in the data with time.
Instrument effect
During the study, there might be changes in the instruments used to perform the research. For instance, in the depressed patients, there is a chance that the tools for measuring pressure changes from an analog to a digital one. Also when the human being collecting data changes or is not available at one time of the study, there is a likelihood that variations occur as the effort of rational people will never be the same. When the instrument has changed, there is a very high likelihood of the data switching either positively or negatively thus confounding occurs.
Mortality or attrition
There exist different forms of friction. For instance, when the patient dies there is a change in data as during the time the patient dies, there is no replacement as it is not possible to change the patient to another as they are not the same. This variation in the midst of the study may lead to changes in the information at the end of the study.
Floor and ceiling
When the researcher conducted the study, the various instruments used may have been either faulty or not sensitive to changes in the data entered. For instance, defective tools of data collection can affect the data collected as variations in the trend of the data changes either positively or negatively. The information received at the end after data analysis and presentation will show some difference with time.
Diffusion in treatment.
During data collection, various things might occur to alter the data collected in the study. For example, when talking about depressed patients more so the women, they like gossiping. Other participants in the study might have influenced their information. Therefore leading to variation in the data collected.
Question 4
Internal validity is the degree at which the outcomes of the experiment piloted can be accredited to the influence of the independent variable in the study while the external validity is the level at which the results acquired from the survey can be comprehensive to the world at large. Very vital in labeling a study conducted (Bondy, J. S, 2010). .
The internal and external validity significance to the researcher
The researcher uses the internal validity in determining the researchers' priority to the experiment. How the experiment conducted can affect the area of study internally. For instance, the operation of the hospital. The researcher's decision on the operation of a particular program in the hospital.
The external validity is vital in drawing the external image of the research conducted to the outside world. The effect of the results displayed to the external environment that is the world.
Question 6
Both within subjects and matched subjects have statistical power. Within-subjects solve the problem of eliminating the individual differences. In within themes, the same elements take part in control and experimental section; this reduces the individual differences as the same element will be working in the next part of study thus having the statistical power. In the matched subjects, the researcher pairs the aspects of education with the specific variable thus this eliminates individual differences thus obtaining the statistical power.
In within the subjects, the same objects are used in both the control and experimental part of the study while in matched subjects different elements are used in power and the experimental part of the study. It means that in within-subjects the portion used in control is not matched in the command, so another element is found to do the experimental part.
While in the matched subjects an item which matches a specific variable is used in that variable, thus different components are used in the control and experimental part of the study.
In within subjects, there is less time required in the study while in the matched issues there is much time needed to conduct the research. In matched matters, the same elements are used both in the control and experimental part of study thus decreasing the time spent on the education. While in matched subjects an exact match has to be looking for to be in a specific variable, it will take a long time to find the game for a particular variable.
In within the subjects there exist carry-over effects while matched subjects have no carry-over effects. In within the issues, the same participants take part in the control and experimental part of the study thus the errors conducted in one part of the survey are carried to another part of the study. While in the matched experimental subjects there are no carry-over effects as the elements have an exact match with the variable.
Part II
Question 1
The purpose of experimenting is to answer to the statement of the problem. An experiment is designed to respond to the subject of the study. Experimental study accomplishes its goals by using manipulation; this is archived the researcher by knowing the assigned variables and dynamic variables. The researcher will be able to understand what variables to change in his or her experiment though control and manipulation of the data.
Question 2
Advantages of experimental design
There is a high level of control as variables isolation is possible thus natural to determine the outcome of the study. The world of business today is of prediction. Therefore, the researcher expects a good result.
There is no limit to the business matter. The world of business is wide, and you can't choose what to study specifically. The experimental design favors the business world through the way it allows the researcher to research on any topic.
The cause and effect are determined, experimental research as the word suggests it is mainly practical thus the impact and purpose of the results are only determined practically in business.
Can be easily combined with other research methods. The business world is broad and comprehensive thus the experimental design best suites it as the methods used in various sectors keeps on changing this can be quickly joined with any technique.
Disadvantages of experimental design
The outcome is not readily trusted as there is human error
Can create situations that are unrealistic and yet they seem authentic.
It is a time-consuming process
Question 3
Control and manipulation are the vital things in the experimental study. It is because they allow one to know the variable that needs manipulation to best suit into the researcher's decision in the survey.
Question 4
Control is the researcher's decision in the removal of unwanted variables that affect the dependent variable (Bondy, J. S, 2010). A c...
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