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3 pages/≈825 words
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Health, Medicine, Nursing
Dissertation Review
English (U.K.)
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Quantitive Social Research Method: Literature Review (Dissertation Review Sample)


Quantitative social Research method: what are the factors that influence international male and female student’s nutritional needs?


Quantitative social Research method: what are the factors that influence international male and female student’s nutritional needs?
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The US continues to be the largest recipient of these international students such that over 20% of all foreign students study in the country. However, Pierce, et al. (2007) report that as foreign learners assimilate to the customs and the cultures of the host nation, they similarly adjust their nutritional practices. Lee, (2008) associates the adoption of students into the cultures of the host country with poor diet quality, change in eating habits, changes in physical health and a change in food choices. Existing literature suggests that changes in individual eating habits upon arrival to the host nation sometimes results in uninvited health outcomes such as unwarranted weight gain and the development of chronic ailments such as diabetes and cancer (Brunt, and Rhee, 2008). Indeed, outside the host nations- which are mostly developed nations such as the US, traditional foods are usually low in saturated and trans-fats, high in starch and often contain servings of fresh vegetables and fruits. Diets in the developed world, on the other hand, contain high levels of calories, artificial sweeteners, and saturated fats, have high slat content, have low fiber and carbohydrate content such as fast food (Almohanna, 2010). Knowledge about food choices and preferences coupled with the aspects that effect eating habits among foreign learners from a plethora of countries is vital to delivering effective nutrition education and care.
Theoretical framework
According to Berry and Sam (1997), cited in Noyongoyo, (2011), cultural diffusion or interaction between international students’ home and the host nation compel the international students to acculturate to their host country. Among the possible ways, the students might opt to preserve their cultural identity while adopting the new culture, a process called integration. Alternatively, they might opt to cherish their home culture and entirely reject the new culture, a process called separatism. Another option would involve abandoning the original culture for the host culture, a process termed as assimilation. A fourth option would involve opting not to neither maintain the original culture nor adopt the new culture (marginalization). Nevertheless, proponents of this model argue that in most instances, most students opt to integrate into the new culture through dressing styles, diets, and communication with parents (Deshpande, Basil, and Basil, 2009). Thus, based on the objectives of the current study, it is possible to assume that cultural interaction between two distinct cultures and the exposure of international students leads in dietary acculturation.
Literature review
Despite several studies commissioned to investigate the current, findings remain inconclusive probably due to differences in research design and location of the studies. Nevertheless, most studies generally agree that to a large extent, a majority of migrant studies immediately change their eating habits upon arriving at the host nation for further studies (Wardle, et al. 2004; Pierce, et al. 2007; Deshpande, Basil, and Basil, 2009; Noyongoyo, 2011). The studies similarly note that several factors play a critical l role in determining the nutritional intake of the international students in the host nation. For instance, Noyongoyo, (2011) comments that the urge to conform to trends in the developed world compels students to develop eating habits of their American counterparts. A similar study reports that some students find the American eating habit less costly compared to the traditional meals that are both scarce and expensive in the developed (Brunt, and Rhee, 2008). These findings are endorsed by Pierce, et al. (2007) who argue that most traditional dishes are served in high-end restaurants that charge premium prices, making them no-go zones for cash-strained students. Lee, (2008) faults the American learning environment which heaps the students with loads of classwork and thereby leaving students with no room to sustain their natural lifestyles.
Research question and hypothesis
R1: What are the factors that influence nutritional needs among international students?
1 Male students are more concerned...
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