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Empirical Research on Illegal Immigration in Australia (Dissertation Review Sample)

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its a literature review of the topic Empirical Research on Illegal Immigration in Australia

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Empirical Research on Illegal Immigration in Australia
Author
Affiliation
Date
Literature review
The methodology that has been chosen for conducting this empirical research is reviewing the literature. The study of literature includes a detailed review of relevant books, peer-reviewed articles, research papers and statistical reports for collecting evidence for our empirical research. All the literature that has been reviewed was published in English. The search of literature has been carried out on various web databases. Moreover, the search of literature was based on three distinct but related criteria. The first criterion is based on the search of literature related to illegal immigration in Australia in which both by sea and by air illegal immigration have been covered. The second criterion is about to study the relationship between the income gap and illegal immigration in which the GDP of developed and GDP of third world countries will be covered. The second criterion helps in understanding why the people of third world countries prefer developed countries because of the income gap. Furthermore, the last and the third criterion that has been chosen for studying the literature is related to GDP of Australia and its lucrative factors that are responsible in attracting many illegal immigrants. Thus, these three criteria will cover all the important components of our research topic which is "illegal immigration in the country like Australia is caused by the income gap between the third world countries and developed countries”.
Illegal immigration in Australia
Illegal migration is one of the social problems of the world. Many people, including philanthropist and politicians have raised their voice against the illegal immigration. The term migrant is used for the person which comes from the other country with the intention of staying in the host country and he does not belong to that host country such a person is called as an Immigrant CITATION Mic07 \l 1033 (LeMay, 2007). In addition the illegal immigration is an act of entering into the boundary of another country without having an authorization or permission from the authorities for the purpose of residing and settling temporarily or permanently in the country CITATION Moi09 \l 1033 (Pinedo, 2009). Such an act is banned and consider as a crime because of its illegal nature. Similarly a person who performs this illegal action is known as illegal migrant or unauthorized alien. A person is labeled as illegal migrant if a person entering a country without the required authorization and valid documents like passport and visa. On the other hand, a person who prolongs his stay even after the expiring of the visa or permit is also called as an illegal immigrant CITATION Han99 \l 1033 (Hanson & Spilimbergo, 1999). Most of the illegal migrants come from the third world countries or developing countries where people face difficult economic and political situations in the developed countries. Illegal migrants believe that they can have a better future and attractive opportunities of success. The developed countries include the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Italy and many other who have greater per capita incomes CITATION Lyn11 \l 1033 (Nielsen, 2011). Australia is the country which is a very attractive country for the illegal migrants because it's one of the development and successful country of the world. Australia is also called as the country of refugees and migrants. Illegal immigration is booming day by day and it has become of the biggest social problem in Australia. It even had a policy of handing over the visas to hundreds of refugees every year, but now when the government of Australia restricted its visa policy and stop issuing the visas to the migrants then the illegal immigration has become the biggest problem. According to the Canberra authorities more than 6000 illegal immigrants every year landed on the northern and northwestern shores of the country CITATION Sté01 \l 1033 (Hiscock, 2001). Most of the illegal immigrants adopt three routes to enter into the Australia illegally. The illegal immigrants come by sea, by land and by air.
* Illegal immigration By Sea in Australia
In Australia, the number of illegal immigrants is increasing day by day. The illegal immigrants, most of the time arrives on boats by sea from Indonesia and Sri Lanka. The illegal immigrants that who come by sea route to Australia are mostly belong to the Middle Eastern countries, Tamil background, Ashmore Island, Charismas Island and Cocos Islands. These all illegal migrants arrive in the Northern and Western territory of Australia CITATION And10 \l 1033 (Andreas Schloendhardt, 2010). The Australia is one of the primary destinations of Asia Pacific region. The migration by boat first occur in 1970 by the people of Vietnam after the aftermath of the Vietnam War, but at that time the migration was legal. When the migration by boat had started many other people stated migration to Australia from the South East Asian countries. Therefore, the number of migrants by boat has increased than the government of Australia put a ban on boat migration without having the visa or authorization letter after that the process of illegal migration by sea have increased. During the illegal migration by boat through the sea, the migrant smugglers are involved CITATION Jan11 \l 1033 (Janet Phillips & Harriet Spinks, 2011). The smugglers provide the illegal immigrants the safe route by charging high fees from the illegal migrants. Most of the illegal migrants arrive from Afghanistan, Iraq and Sri Lanka with the help of smugglers. The coasts of Indonesia and Malaysia are used by the smugglers as the transit route, where the smuggler dispatches migrants on the sea journey to Australia. The large number of cases had been reported of illegal migration by sea from 1999 to till date CITATION UNO11 \l 1033 (UNODC, 2011) but at the same now illegally migrate from the far countries adopts air travelling and do illegal migration by the Air. The migration by the sea route is also very dangerous many times the boat has skunked into the sea because of the overload of the migrantsCITATION And03 \l 1033 (Kevin, 2004).
Irregular arrivals by sea in Australia
CITATION Jan111 \l 1033 (Phillips, 2011)

Years

No. of arrivals

2006

60

2007

148

2008

161

2009

2726

2010

6555

* Illegal immigration By Air in Australia
According to the report of the United Nation Office on drug and Crime travelling by air is more safe and successful than the travelling by sea or by other means for the illegal migrants CITATION UNO10 \l 1033 (UNODC, 2010). Migration by air is one of the best options for the illegal migrants. The smuggled migrants travel with the other passengers, but they do not have any authorization of traveling by air. They do not have any valid documents. The illegal migrants follow fraudulent means to enter into the country like most of the time the illegal immigrants conceal in the cargo hauls, bathrooms and other compartments of the airplanes for the purpose of moving to the other country. But in the case of Australia such an illegal migration by concealing in the compartment of an airplane is very rare. In the case of Australia, the illegal immigration is done by air with the help of fraud documents. The fraud documents are provided by the smugglers to the illegal migrant CITATION UNO10 \l 1033 (UNODC, 2010). The smuggler who performs as the third person in the whole process charges high price for fake visa and documents. High price charging has made this illegal act as lucrative and wealthier activity for the smugglers. Thus, document fraud is the central feature of migrant smuggling by air to Australia. The Australian government requires passport, identity card and Visas that are the most important documents that are necessary for immigration purpose. In the document fraud the forged document is provided by the migrant smuggler to the illegal migrant. The fake document is prepared by two ways CITATION Kha08 \l 1033 (Koser, 2008). The first, wrong information is provided for preparing original documents in this case the fraud will be done and the immigrant will called as an illegal immigrant. In the second case the fake documents or forged documents are prepared for the journey. Both of the cases are risky, but travelling is safer than the sea. The illegal migration through the air is increasing day by day despite of strict check points on the Australian airports illegal migrant successfully go through the whole journey CITATION And12 \l 1033 (Andreas & LELLIOTT, 2012).
Illegal immigrants arrival by air in Australia CITATION And12 \l 1033 (Andreas & LELLIOTT, 2012)

Year

No. of illegal immigrant

2006-2007

1388

2007-2008

1189

2008-2009

1284

2009-2010

1573

2010-11

1809

Income gap and illegal immigration
Most of the time the time the act of illegal immigration is backed by certain of reasons like a person who belongs to the backward or under-developing or developing countries try to find for the opportunities in his own country when he does not find any good thing in his country then he plan to migrate to another country through proper or improper means. The biggest reason behind the illegal migration is income gap or inequality. The international migration is one of the symbols of global inequality CITATION Sta91 \l 1033 (O & JE, 1991). The inequality exists between the different countries of the world. Such an inequality include the difference of opportunities, facilities, wages, income and lifestyle. Moreover, the dimension of inequality is not limited to the income gap other factors like polit...
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