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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
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Arteries and Veins, Arterial and Venous Circulatory Vessel, and the Immune System (Essay Sample)


The task was to answer three biology essay questions. Each question focused on different topics related to biology.
Question 1 required a discussion of the anatomical and functional differences between arteries and veins. The response provided a clear description of three characteristics of arteries and veins each, highlighting their roles in transporting oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. The essay also explained the functional reasons for these differences, such as the presence of valves in veins to prevent backflow and the thicker, muscular walls in arteries to withstand higher blood pressure.
Question 2 asked for a trace of the arterial and venous circulatory vessel routes to the head, arm, and leg, starting from the aorta and ending with the superior or inferior vena cava. The response successfully listed all the vessels in the correct order, explaining the blood flow pathways to each body part and how oxygenated and deoxygenated blood is transported to and from the heart.
Question 3 involved discussing an organ and organ system, explaining why the immune system is a cellular system rather than an organ system. The essay also described the origin and maturation of lymphocytes in the body, along with their abundance in lymph nodes. Additionally, the response defined and discussed the functions of phagocytosis, inflammation, and interferon, and explained why these processes are not highly specific. It further covered the adaptive immune system's characteristics, its specificity, and the functions of different T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes.
In conclusion, the essay provided comprehensive answers to the biology essay questions, covering a range of topics such as the circulatory system, immune system, and the functions of different blood vessels and lymphocytes in the body. The responses were well-structured, informative, and addressed all aspects of each question as per the instructions given.


Biology essay questions
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Biology essay questions
Q1. Discuss the anatomical and functional differences between arteries and veins. Describe three characteristics of an artery, three characteristics of veins, and then discuss how those characteristics are different between arteries and veins. For each of these characteristics be sure to discuss the functional reason for the difference. (10 points)
Arteries and veins play important roles in the circulation of blood in the body. All veins transport deoxygenated blood except the pulmonary vein and they all transport blood towards the heart. The largest veins are the superior and inferior vena cava where the superior vena cava carries blood from upper body to the heart and the inferior vena cava carries blood from everywhere below the heart. On the other hand, all arteries transports oxygenated blood except the pulmonary artery. The arteries carry blood from the heart to other body parts. The largest artery is the aorta. This is the first artery that blood travels through after getting oxygenated. It starts at your heart and reaches up toward your neck. ‌ Both the major veins and artery branch off into many other veins and arteries throughout your body. Veins and arteries possess some characteristics which structurally differ due to their different functioning in the blood circulation process. Some characteristics of the arteries include; absence of valves, narrow lumen, thicker and highly muscular walls. On the other hand, veins are characterized with; presence of valves, wider lumen and

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