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4 pages/≈1100 words
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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
English (U.S.)
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Bacteriophages (Essay Sample)

Subject Biology Number of pages 4 Spacing Double Number of slides 0 Number of Questions 0 Number of Problems 0 Academic Level Bachelor Type of Work Writing from scratch Type of Paper Essay Sources needed 10 Abstract Page No Paper Format APA Paper details I need an introduction on Bacteriophages and its work with spoilage bacteria to extend the shelflife of food. and I need a paragraph about the risks of Bacteriophages. source..
Bacteriophages Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Bacteriophages Introduction Bacteriophages, informally referred to as phages, are a group of viruses that infect bacteria and inhibit its activity. In some cases, the phages kill the bacterial cell by binding themselves on it and exploding it CITATION Ipe12 \l 1033 (Kurtböke, 2012). Alternatively, these viruses introduce their DNA into the bacterial chromosome and change the genetic composition of the host. Phage-infected bacterial cells cannot function normally because their structure has been altered CITATION Kun18 \l 1033 (Asija & Teschke, 2018). In such cases, the pathogens may not cause diseases or contribute to the rotting of food. Phages are vital in the prevention of bacterial infections and preservation because they hinder the functionality of microbes, though they are also risky since they can make other microorganisms harmful and cause diseases. Applications of Bacteriophages in the Food Industry The food industry is characterized by challenges of handling products in appropriate way. As much as the key players of the storage sector try to be careful, cases of food spoilage are still common. Factors such as temperature and sanitation influence the shelf life of food products. According to Wolke (2004), the effect of pathogens such bacteria, molds, and yeasts may make the food rot. Other causes include oxidation due to exposure to air, inappropriate temperatures, and the work of food enzymes. Rapid rotting of food poses a major problem to the key stakeholders in the industry. Some strategies such as refrigeration have been adopted to extend the period in which the food remains safe by slowing down decomposition. Some people use additive preservatives such as sugar and salt. The techniques are ideal because they increase the shelf life of food products. It is possible to prevent food from going bad only for a certain period. Antimicrobials such as acids and other chemical elements are also use to inhibit the growth of the bacteria that contributes to spoilage. Bacteriophages can be used as bio-control agents in the preservation of food. The reason for this is that some food borne pathogens seem to be resistant to antibiotics. Individuals and firms have resolved to the use Bacteriophages as an alternative antimicrobial. The process is economically viable because it results significant decrease in the bacterial load on foodstuffs and lengthens shelf life. Most of the commercial preservation agents contain Bacteriophages. Such products include ListShield or LISTEX, EcoShield, and SALMONELEX CITATION Tze18 \l 1033 (Thung, et al., 2018). The preservatives control Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and salmonella, respectively. The effectiveness of Bacteriophages in preservation is determined by the structure and chemical composition of the items to be conserved and the diffusion ability of the microorganisms used in the process. Other factors that influence the success rate of food preservation by these elements include the pH level, activity on biofilms, and resistance of bacteria. The reason for this is that there are resistant bacteria mutants that hinder the preservation role of Bacteriophages. According to Oliveira, Abadías, Colás-Medà, Viñas, and Usall (2015), the concentration of phages and hosts also determines the preservation efficacy because it influences replication. Therefore, effective preservation of food using Bacteriophages depends on various conditions such as pH, the foods’ chemical makeup, and resistance of the pathogens. The Bacteriophages are used as packaging material for food to maintain its safety and freshness. This approach is ideal because it controls the amount phages particles that are released into the food to enhance its safety CITATION Pau121 \l 1033 (Hyman & Abedon, 2012). Furthermore, the technique is appropriate as it is characterized by fewer wastes as compared to spraying. There are various techniques of embedding Bacteriophages into the food packages for preservation. First, the elements are immobilized on positively charged and modified cellulose membranes CITATION Aye16 \l 1033 (Lone, et al., 2016). The infusion of the packaging paper with Bacteriophages suspensions also aids in food preservation. Finally, the Bacteriophages can be encapsulated in alginate beads and the latter are applied onto the food wrapping material. The strategies ensure the safety of agricultural produce and meat. Consequently, cases of food contamination that may cause diseases are minimized through the use Bacteriophages. The shelf life of food is also increased and this enhances reliability and sustainability of the food supply chain. Risks of Bacteriophages Bacteriophages are characterized by some risks that may cause health problems. For instance, the microorganisms may fail to alter the activities of bacteria and this may result in illnesses. The reason for this is that some Bacteriophages may not be specific for a particular bacterial strain. If wrong Bacteriophages are used to prevent infection, the chances of failure are high. In such cases, people and animals end up getting sick in circumstances that can be prevented. The use of Bacteriophages is not a guaranteed method of disease prevention or food preservation. In adverse situations, the microorganisms fail to inhibit the activity of bacteria, leading to the development of diseases and decomposition of food CITATION Pri19 \l 1033 (Principi, Silvestri, & Esposito, 2019). Therefore, Bacteriophages can cause harm to human beings and animals if they are not used appropriately. Secondly, Bacteriophages may contribute to bacterial resistance and this may affect disease prevention and cure efforts adversely CITATION Ste17 \l 1033 (Abedon, García, Mullany, & Aminov, 2017). The reason for this is that the existence Bacteriophages may trigger protective behavior among bacterial cells. For instance, some bacteria may hide or alter their cellular secretions to avoid viral attacks CITATION Pri19 \l 1033 (Principi, Silvestri, & Esposito, 2019). As the resistance of such disease causing agents increases, the effectiveness of medicines and vaccines is expected o decline. Therefore, Bacteriophages may be a risk to the health of living organisms. Antibiotic resistance may be detrimental to the health of people because it will be difficult to treat some illnesses. In regards to preservation, food poisoning may easily occur in cases where the Bacteriophages are unable to suppress the activities of destructive bacteria CITATION Ste07 \l 1033 (Grath & Sinderen, 2007). People and animals may end up ingesting rotten food and develop illnesses. Finally, the immune system may be weakened by Bacteriophages. Since these microorganisms are non-self-antigens, they can be r...
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