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Science: Compare the Structure and Functions of DNA and RNA (Essay Sample)


compare the structures and functions of DNA and RNA


Compare the Structure and Functions of DNA and RNA
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Compare the Structure and Functions of DNA and RNA
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a self-reproducing molecule that carries genetic information in humans and almost all other organisms. RNA (ribonucleic acid) is a polymeric molecule that acts as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA to control proteins' synthesis. Although DNA and RNA are all nucleic acids, they have differences in their structures and functions.
Both DNA and RNA comprise linear polymers of nucleotides, with a difference in their bases and sugars. A nucleotide is a base linked to a sugar-phosphate. According to Wold, Rich, Weeks, and Lutter (2020), a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid is double-stranded and has four nucleotides that form a double helix structure. It has stability in high pH conditions. The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose. The four nitrogenous bases found in the DNA are thymine (T), cytosine (C), adenine (A), and guanine (G).
On the other hand, ribonucleic acid is a single-stranded molecule of four different nucleotides (Gray & Beyer, 2020). It is not stable under high pH conditions. The sugar in RNA is ribose. The four nitrogenous bases found in RNA are uracil (U), cytosine (C), adenine (A), and guanine (G). Therefore, the sugars and base pairing of deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids are different.
Deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids play different roles in human bodies. DNA performs two main functions through its replication and transcription processes (Wold, Rich, Weeks, & Lutter, 2020). It stores information required to build and control the cell. Through the process of replication, DNA transmits the genetic information from mother to daughter cells. In the transcription process, DNA transfers genetic information to RNA in the form of a specific sequence of bases. However, RNA functions in protein synthesis to transmit the genetic code necessary for protein creation from the DNA to the ribosome (Gray & Beyer, 2020). It is responsible for the production of new cells in the bodies of humans and other li

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