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2 pages/≈550 words
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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
English (U.S.)
MS Word
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Exotoxins And Endotoxins Biological & Biomedical Sciences Essay (Essay Sample)


difference between exotoxins and endotoxins


Microbiology – A Reflective Journal
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Microbiology – A Reflective Journal
Microbial toxins refer to harmful substances that are produced by bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms to enhance their disease-causing tendencies or pathogenicity. These substances typically destroy the cells of the host tissue and facilitate infection by weakening or disabling the immune system. Further, toxins alter the usual host cells’ metabolism, often with injurious effects. There are two broad classifications of microbial toxins, namely endotoxins and exotoxins.
Endotoxins are heat-stable lipopolysacharide-protein complexes (LPS) that form an integral element of gram-negative bacteria’s cell wall. The LPS is often produced during lysis or the death of the bacteria’s cells. These toxins are located on the outer cell membrane of bacteria. Thus, they are also known as cell-associated substances because they make up part of bacteria’s structural components. They also contain disaccharide phosphates, fatty acids, core polysaccharides, and O antigen

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