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Essay Available:
Pages:
2 pages/≈1100 words
Sources:
1 Source
Level:
APA
Subject:
Biological & Biomedical Sciences
Type:
Essay
Language:
English (U.S.)
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MS Word
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Topic:

Summary of Effects of environmentally relevant metformin exposure on Japanese medaka (Essay Sample)

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Summary of article: Effects of environmentally relevant metformin exposure on Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

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Content:

Summary of Effects of environmentally relevant metformin exposure on Japanese medaka
Aixuan Liu
According to the increase in pharmaceuticals like metformin being released in aquatic ecosystem and the unknown of the effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of metformin on non-target aquatic species, and the care of aquatic animals, the research team design the experiment about the growth of embryo-larval stages of medaka with the environment of metformin from the aspects of uptake, bioaccumulation, and depuration. They hypothesize that the metabolites between control and metformin-exposed fish would have different expressions of genes.
Methods
The researchers design three experiments to correspond to three aspects of uptake, depuration and early life stage.
For the experimental design of uptake study, the researchers assess the waterborne metformin in both embryonic, and larval stage medaka. For the trail of embryonic medaka study, the researchers assigned one of two treatments randomly to viable embryos for testing the effect of chorion hardening on uptake. They replicated treatment with 14-C metformin 3 times on 60 embryos for 24 hours with exposure beginning at either pre-chorion hardening or post-chorion hardening. 

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