Therapeutic, Embryonic, and Reproductive Cloning Essay (Essay Sample)
The objective was to differentiate therapeutic, embryonic, and reproductive cloning, their various advantages and disadvantages, as well as challenges experienced in their practical development and how they are applied in various fields of research including, medicine and agriculture.source..
Therapeutic, Reproductive and Embryonic Cloning
The development of genetic technology in Biology over the last decades has enabled the practice of theorized cloning techniques. In this essay, therapeutic, embryonic, and reproductive cloning have been studied in detail and summarized. The objective of the paper is to differentiate therapeutic, embryonic, and reproductive cloning, their various advantages and disadvantages, as well as challenges experienced in their practical development and how they are applied in various fields of research, medicine, and agriculture. The research also seek to understand ethical issues surrounding the three types of cloning.
Therapeutic, Reproductive, and Embryonic Cloning
Cloning is the science of producing genetically identical multiple copies, also referred to as clones, of DNA fragments, cells, group of cells, organ or the whole organism. In nature, cloning occurs through the process of asexual reproduction whereby organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and plants produce offspring that are genetically identical to their parents. However, due to advancement in technology and research, artificial cloning has become possible. Artificial methods of cloning include therapeutic, reproductive, and embryonic cloning (Sourbeer, Wisnecki, Palomar College, & Insight Media, 2008).
Modern genetic technology has enabled man to produce clones from existing individuals. For example, therapeutic cloning is used to produce stem cells which can be coerced to develop into a specific organ for organ transplant. Reproductive cloning has helped to produce whole organisms, which is an important breakthrough as it helps in restoring endangered species. Artificial cloning has raised various ethical issues, especially on human cloning. Advocates for human cloning argue in the sense that therapeutic cloning should be developed to help generate organs for organ transplant to patient who lack compatible donors while avoiding the use of immunosuppressive drugs. They also argue that reproductive cloning may help parents who cannot procreate. Religious groups are highly opposed to cloning as it opposes the will of God. Other opponents argue that the cloning technology is not developed enough to be of safe use as it is prone to abuse.
The perspectives of human cloning are largely theoretical as human therapeutic and reproductive cloning are not in commercial use yet (Andrews, 1999). However, animals and plants are largely cloned in laboratories and in livestock production for study. To control and secure the cloning technology, ethical guidelines have been established by international communities through the Universal Enormous Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights.
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