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ID Models (Essay Sample)


Importance of Instructional design (ID) as a carriculum that supports sustainable retention of skills during educational and training programs


ID Models
ID Models
ID Models with Illustrations
Instructional design (ID) is a systematic process of putting learning elements and outcomes together to form a curriculum that supports sustainable retention of skills during educational and training programs (Akbulut, 2007). The traditional instructional process allowed the instructor to use texts to impart skills to the learner. The learner was tested to recall text content and apply it to pass the class examinations. The contemporary world of education has adopted a systematic approach to instructional design that allows seamless linkages of all systems, including the instructor, learner, materials, learning environment, and the educational outcome (Akbulut, 2007).
The best two models of Instruction systematic design are the Dick and Carey Model and ADDIE Model. The illustration below depicts the Dick and Carey Model.

Figure 1. The Dick and Carey Model (Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2009).
The acronym ADDIE stands for Analyze needs, Design instruction, Develop materials, Implement activities, and Evaluate learners’ progress and instructional effectiveness, describing the five phases of this instructional design model. The figure below is an illustration of ADDIE model.

Figure 2. The ADDIE model
Comparing and Contrasting the Two Models
ID variablesADDIEThe Dick and Carey modelSimilarities
AnalysisAnalyze learners and determine learning objectives.
Budget analysis.
Mention the due date of every program’s outcome.Conduct instructional analysis to assess learning goals.
Identify instructional goal.
Analyze learners and context.
Write performance objectives (Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2009).DesignSelect best learning environment.
Write instructional objectives.
Select approach to learning program.
Design course content.Revise instructions.
Develop assessment instructions (Akbulut, 2007).
DevelopmentCreate instructional design.
Create a supportive social interaction environment that encourages learners to participate.Develop instructional strategy.
Develop and choose instructional materials (Akbulut, 2007).
Implementation Make materials available.
Maintain course materials.
Define communication plans to counter ambiguity in materials.Plan and direct evaluation on the semantic level.DesignPrepare assessment criterion and inform students.
Design a fair evaluation procedure.
Test competency through tests, class participation and test research skills. Design and conduct summative evaluation of instruction.Differences
ADDIE is a brief and straightforward ID model.
This model is cheaper to apply since it has five straightforward steps.
The instructor can jump a step without altering the quality of ID.This model is comprehensive and extensive.
The model is costly to apply and involves many specify instructional tasks.
The instructor must proceed from one step to the next and cannot proceed without having completed the previous one. 
Using the Models in the Design of My Own Instruction
The ID models of ADDIE and Dick and Carey present systems of teaching that adapt traditional instructional systems consisting of the instructor, textbooks, and the learner but from a systematic point of view. Five elements of ADDIE model enumerated above give a simple foundation for the development and implementation of instructional design. (Dooley, Lindner, & Dooley, 2003). The instructor primarily provides information and the student must understand the content and apply skills learned to find solutions to life challenges. ADDIE model provides the base for the development and application of the Dick and the Carey Model in developing my own instructional design.
ADDIE Model provides five fundamental steps that analyze and check educational programs. ADDIE’s first step of analysis is compared to Dick and Carey Model’s first step of assessing needs to find learning goals. This is a student-centered attitude that allows the instructor to consult with students on the best learning strategies pegged on the expected outcome (Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2009). The creation of clear learning statements that shows the instructional goal is core to defining the goals of implementing the instructional design (ID) process (Dooley, Lindner, & Dooley, 2003). Contemporary job skill requirements and new research trends are considered when assessing learning goals. Student suggestions are easily included in the ADDIE’s analysis step that conducts an instructional analysis to note learners’ needs and context before writing performance activities.
The Dick and Carey Model uses a linear connected system that allows all components of instructional design to fit together seamlessly as seen from Figure 1. On the other hand, ADDIE Model is limited to the linear Figure 2 which means that the previous component only affects the successive one. Therefore, the Dick and Carey Model is more flexible in offering a collaborative instructional design that includes the instructor’s and learner’s views (Dooley, Lindner, & Dooley, 2003). The model offers the instructor and the learners a chance to find their media activities and promotes a social learning environment that supports the use of technology (Rourke & Anderson, 2002). This means that the Dick and Carey Model develops an elaborate mechanism that provides functionality through evaluation, analysis, and customized studies that support a systematic view of the learning process.
The instructional design’s objective is to enhance learners to gain skills. The Dick and Carey Model promises to offer a straightforward component in providing instructional objectives’ input by developing a delivery system that considers the learner’s expectations in the job market (Fox & Doherty, 2012). Application of technology is a definitive course delivery system that increases efficiency of the Dick and Carey Model. This model is effective in the delivery of the curriculum because of its collaborative nature that relies on group activities between the instructor and the learners (Rourke & Anderson, 2002). ADDIE Model is very easy to apply. However, ADDIE lacks a clear guidance on the course delivery processes which means that the instructor is the only one to decide whether to include efficient media and online learning aids and materials (Rourke & Anderson, 2002). On the other part, the Dick and Carey Model gives the instructor and the learners a chance to take part in deciding on the best learning activities.
In conclusion, the Dick and Carey Model is a superior ID model that allows the instructor to con...
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