Aviation & Aerospace Law: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) (Essay Sample)
Aviation & Aerospace Law
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)
Aviation & Aerospace Law
Aviation & Aerospace Law
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) is one of the growing technologies introduced in the aviation system. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has proposed efforts meant to expand the integration of unmanned aircraft. The role of the FAA is to engage an incremental approach to ensuring the safety of UAS systems. This research paper gives a descriptive overview of the regulatory requirements of the current FAA framework to control the operating environment for UAS systems.
FAA Regulatory Requirements
There are in place FAA regulatory requirements that govern the operation of UAS on a full range of services. Some enforcement procedures need implementation into the framework. Certification procedures are necessary for the industry. Airworthiness standards require regulation and these covers Commuter Category Airplanes (CCA), Acrobatic, Utility, and Normal standards. Airworthiness standards are also regulated on Transport Category Airplanes (TCA) and Aircraft Engines (Rango & Laliberte, 2010). Some requirements extend to the need for Exhaust Emission Requirements and Fuel Venting for Turbines of the Airplane. Airworthiness standards are also provided for propellers. Regulations for maintenance of the aircraft involves those that relates to alteration, rebuilding, and preventive maintenance. Identifications are also appropriate including the need for registration marking, certification for Airmen, general flight rules, and operating requirements (Watts, Ambrosia & Hinkley, 2012).
Airspace and Altitude Restrictions
The maximum altitude which the UAS system is restricted is that which pertains to the testing of the aircraft. The aircraft can only be flown at a maximum altitude following the time of testing of such a system in the airspace. Additionally, there are restrictions imposed in flying the aircraft in the sky. No one is allowed to operate an aircraft in the airspace (controlled airspace) unless a test is conducted under the Instrument Flight Regulations (IFR) regulations. The operation of the plane in controlled airspace is only allowed if a test has been administered for a period not less than 24 months following the completion of the inspection (Dalamagkidis, Valavanis & Piegl, 2008).
Visual Observer Qualifications (VO)
The role of the VO is to enable observation of the air traffic with the intention of helping the operation observe safety standards. The establishment of safety requirements is on the maintenance of safe distance that is required with other air traffics. Crew qualification is another essential element, and this touches on certificates, licenses, experience, and other qualifications for the VO. Additionally, there is alcohol and drug policy that restricts the consumption of such products under the local regulatory authorities (Dalamagkidis, Valavanis & Piegl, 2008).
The UAS has introduced limitations to the “visual line of sight” on small flights. These restrictions apply both to the Visual Observer (VO) and the operator. There is recognition of the FAA that a small operation by the UAS may employ the use of “multiple visual observers” in expanding the bounds of the circle emanating from “visual line of sight” requirements. Under set standards, the visual observer or the operator must be able to observe some key requirements (Rango & Laliberte, 2010). These requirements are the identification of knowledge on the location of the small UAS. There is the provision for determination of the direction and attitude of the UAS. There is the observation of the health hazards pertaining to the airspace, and the need to control the life of another (Watts, Ambrosia & Hinkley, 2012).
There are some limitations imposed on the operator and VO due to a simultaneous control of multiple UAS. The existing rules state that no person can be in operation of VO on more than one UAS at one time. The objective of this regulatory approach is to reduce the risk imposed to people or property. There are situations where there can be a multiple UAS operation. Such a situation calls for appropriate authorization to ensure that a segregation plan exists. The presence of a separation plan is to ensure that there is control of any simultaneously lost link. The de-confliction plan may be drawn for the purpose of offsetting altitude and horizontal operation through the use of independent Lost Link Points (LLPs) (Watts, Ambrosia & Hinkley, 2012).
Penalties for Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Violation
Penalties are imposed following the violations of terms as set out in the FAR. These include the defense and indemnity. The operator is supposed to indemnify the purchaser, operators, and other agents against claims arising from the violation of FAR guidelines. Such penalties are imposed following the breach of the agreement, willful misconduct, or any infringement of law by the operator. Claims covered include losses, liabilities, all settlements, cou