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Theatre,Magic,Mysticism,and the Death of Traditional Malaysian Theatre (Essay Sample)

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The source of Malaysia traditional drama can be traced back to the primitive religious rituals of the ancient Malays. In the 14th century AD, shadow puppets began to spread in Malay areas. Malay drama as an integral art was produced in the 1880s. Due to obstruction by conservative forces, the development of Malay drama was slow. Since the 1950s, Malay theater has come a long way. Malay drama has mainly undergone four stages of development: Bangsawan drama, early stage drama, realistic drama, and contemporary drama. It was originally a religious sacrificial dance drama from Persia. The topic was limited to the history of the Islamic prophets and heroes, and then gradually described the history and real life. Around 1870, a Persian saying company arrived in Penang, performing plays. The performance gained a reputation. In 1883, Mamak Bush imitated the Persian Wayang Opera and established the Malay Wayang Theater. Based on the local social reality, he imitated the Persian Wayang style and carried out acting activities that mainly reflected the lives of upper-class figures in society. Because the acting is based on a taste for nobility, it is called Bangsawan (which means noble drama). It inherits the tradition of folk rap, adopts the screen system, and the actors improvise their own lines and organize conflicts (Hamid 2019 p 323)

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Theatre, magic, mysticism, and the death of traditional Malaysian theatre
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History and Geography
The source of Malaysia traditional drama can be traced back to the primitive religious rituals of the ancient Malays. In the 14th century AD, shadow puppets began to spread in Malay areas. Malay drama as an integral art was produced in the 1880s. Due to obstruction by conservative forces, the development of Malay drama was slow. Since the 1950s, Malay theater has come a long way. Malay drama has mainly undergone four stages of development: Bangsawan drama, early stage drama, realistic drama, and contemporary drama. It was originally a religious sacrificial dance drama from Persia. The topic was limited to the history of the Islamic prophets and heroes, and then gradually described the history and real life. Around 1870, a Persian saying company arrived in Penang, performing plays. The performance gained a reputation. In 1883, Mamak Bush imitated the Persian Wayang Opera and established the Malay Wayang Theater. Based on the local social reality, he imitated the Persian Wayang style and carried out acting activities that mainly reflected the lives of upper-class figures in society. Because the acting is based on a taste for nobility, it is called Bangsawan (which means noble drama). It inherits the tradition of folk rap, adopts the screen system, and the actors improvise their own lines and organize conflicts (Hamid 2019 p 323) The early works of Bangsawan had a strong primitive religious color, and the content of the works came mainly from myths, fables and national and foreign historical stories. For example, "Alibaba and the Forty Thieves" and "Aladdin and the Magic Lamp" are popular works. In the 1930s, Bangsawan dramas began to reflect real life. The themes focused on punishing evil and promoting good and admonishing the world. It became a popular drama in Malay-speaking regions (including Indonesia) before the 1940s. "Between Two Coffins", "between two coffin" in Spanish, was released in 1935, Johor, which describes the history of the pagans accused after their marriage and death."Who's Blame", "Who's to blame" in Spanish, first premiered in 1938, Singapore, describing an unrelated son who was struck by lightning and exposing the bad consequences of education slavery."The Rebellious Son", "The Rebellious Son" in Spanish, was first performed in Johor in 1932, depicting a young man who abandoned his wife and continued to marry others, swallowing his family's wealth and eventually ended up in prison.
After the end of the Second World War, the national liberation movement flourished and the Bangsawan drama gradually declined. Western-educated intellectuals translated Shakespeare's plays, translated drama theories, and came up with the idea of ​​emphasizing contemporary social life. In the 1930s, the Bangsawan Opera was transformed by the Indonesian Theater Company, which eliminated the interspersed acting program, used a theater book, and emphasized the role of the conductor. The repertoire performed by the company in Malaya had an impact on the local theater community, and was called a "new drama", and the drama came to the fore. The Shakespeare play performed by the school during this period also had a certain impact. In the initial stage, the dramas used historical themes to allude to contemporary social life. Shade Alwe Alhadi's "Islamic Hero Tale Bin Zayed" was performed in 1942 and promoted the spirit of Islam. "Malay Hero Hang Tuah" praised the national heroism. (Hays 2018 p 69)In the 1950s, the drama reached its peak. The play echoes the awakening of the Malay nation, and the representative works are "Water Ghost", "Johor Tiger" and "Tun Sri Lalang". Garam Hamidi's "Children of Magnificence" is considered an excellent drama with originality. After the 1960s, the drama completely abandoned the remaining traces of the Bangsawan drama in form, focused on the colloquialization of lines, and stage installations pursued the authenticity of life. Playwrights began to absorb critical realism creation methods and paid more attention to the compilation of materials from contemporary social life. Usman awang's (1928 ") representative play" uda and dara "is a tragedy depicting the innocent love of young men and women, and condemning the feudal system. One-act play" guest on Kenny hill” describes the situation of a high official who is plagued with various contradictions, exposing various contradictions in real life. His works "from stars to stars" (1965), "under the sun" (1969), "curtain of the times" (1969), "red morning" (1971), etc., concentrated reflect the achievements of Malay dramatic creation in the depth and breadth of realism. When the realistic drama began to flourish, there were already new experiments in the form of drama. In the 1970s, some playwrights abandoned the tradition of directly reflecting social reality, adopted Western absurd dramatic methods of representation, took humanitarianism as the guiding ideology, deeply reflected the solitary inner activities of people, and deliberately created absurd and absurd stage images. Peculiar. His works are called "contemporary work”. The attitude of Shiite Muslims to theater differs significantly from fatwas orthodox Sunni ulema, most of which still consider theater and any manifestation of theatricality to be “an instrument of the devil (iblis)”. Malaysia has numerous culture and multi-denominational country, who’s the main used language is Islamic. From the Census conducted on population 2010, the 61.3% of the tallied population conducted Islamic a small percentage of 19.8% did Buddhist, and some of Christians were 9.2% and the Hindi were only 6.3%. Others correspond to other religions, such as animism which was very popular religion along with Sikhism and Bahai’s religion. (Hamada and Mohammad 2019 p. 1909)General Attitude of Official Religious Leaders in the Arab Sunni World to any art had and is in the nature of a restrained-applied consensus, expressed in the maxim - everything that does not serve the purpose of knowing the divine essence of the world is a sin (haram). The black magic was a miracles that were performed in the theater.  Mysticism, occultism, magic magpie ... Aside from the strict distinction, I would like to call all of them mysticism here. All forms of religion can be said to be mysticism, and those seeking unity between the soul and God will be bound by this name. The use of owls in black magic and witchcraft is one of the main factors for the covert trade of these animals in India. According to the report published today by TRAFFIC (a joint program of WWF and the Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN), the skulls, feathers, claws, eggs, viscera and bones of these animals are used in rituals and ceremonies.
Anthropology
Mystical experiences are special religious experiences that are different from ordinary experiences. As the English mysticism is said to have come from the Greek word myelin (meaning to close the eyes or mouth), this experience goes beyond the realm of everyday and rational cognition to see and speak in a subjective-objective conflict. Therefore it is called mystery. Mystical thoughts begin to be formed starting from the reflective self-understanding of the parties to the experience, but once formed, the thoughts then serve as a guide to guide people to mystical experiences. For those who are looking forward to the experience, instruct them in advance about the content and direction to go, and have them prepare the situation internally. However, the mystical experience itself is of a nature that each person has no choice but to prove himself. Therefore, in parallel with the approach to the experience by thought, various forms of "mysterious training" will be attempted. It is a so-called line (gyo) that repeatedly adds a certain degree of regulation to the body and mind. The process of progressing the line and developing the boundary is called "mysterious staircase" and is generally shown step by step. Purification, concentration, meditation, union, self-defeat, tranquility, etc. are combined by each religion. This system of lines is also an important element of mysticism. National Theater of Kuala Lumpur. Here's what they write about him: Istana Budaya - National Theater of Malaysia. Most people know it as palace of culture, it is the tower of the National Art Gallery along Jalan Street. Established in the year 1999, the theater is considered the premier venue in the country for concerts of native and outside, dance, drama performances including operettas, classical music and other cultural events. It is the first theater in Asia with state-of-the-art stage e, Istana Budaya is regarded as one of the finest theaters in the world, on a par with the Royal Albert Hall in London. About RM210 million was spent on construction, the total area of ​​the theater, which was inaugurated by the Prime Minister, Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, is 54,400 square meters (Thiagarajan 2017 pp 93). I was designed by a prominent architecture Mohamed is one of the most landmarks in Kuala Lumpur, whose structure is protected by a turquoise-blue, tiled roof that 'folds' resemble one of the pieces of a giant origami. As in a traditional Malay home, the theater is divided into three zones: serambi, rumah ibu the (audience) and stage of the room. The shape of the main building is taken from sireh jungjung, a traditional betel leaf decoration that is used in Malay weddings and welcoming ceremonies, while the tranquil foyer is the most e...

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