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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Essay Sample)


The instructions for this paper required one to carry out detailed research on Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This sample paper provides detailed information on COPD entails. It also provides detailed information on the physiology, symptoms, etiology, and management of COPD. It also expounds on how emergency responder recognizes disasters that cause this disease and how they manage disasters.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Course name
Tutor’s name
Date of submission
1 Introduction
2 Physiology of COPD
3 Typical symptoms of COPD
4 Etiology of COPD
5 Management of COPD
6 Inhalation of dust
7 Observable symptoms after inhaling dust
8 Special measures for controlling dust disasters
9 How emergency responder recognizes disasters
10 Things to be done in case of a disaster
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
According to Blackler and Mooney (2007), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a progressive illness that is described by airflow impediments that are not reversible. The airflow obstructions are occasionally linked to the damage of lung parenchyma. COPD comprises of diverse diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma and emphysema. Its prevalence varies greatly because it is under-diagnosed by majority of the people. In addition to its symptoms being hard to diagnose, majority of the nurses and doctors lack enough information concerning appropriate primary care. According to Calverley and Pride (1995), COPD, smoking disease, is the sixth disease that causes human deaths in the world.
Physiology of COPD
Majority of the people get COPD via gaseous exchange. The intake of polluted air or air full of dust contributes significantly towards an individual contracting COPD. The other fact concerning COPD is that it is also a genetic disease; it passes from parents to offsprings (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 1986).
Typical symptoms of COPD
Individuals suffering from COPD not only experience difficulties in breathing, but also cough strenuously and produce chronic mucus. COPD also affect an individual’s physical performance; majority of the persons suffering have difficulties in carrying out their activities. In sum, a person suffering from COPD not only produce sputum regularly, but also a wheezing sound when breathing in and out (Currie, 1991).
Etiology of COPD
Studies have shown a high relation between smoking of cigarettes and the contracting of COPD. According to MacNee (2004), it is also evident that increase in age contributes to severity of COPD. Majority of the individuals above the age of 65 have been found so susceptible to it compared to those below the age of 65. Research carried in the UK proves COPD as gender sensitive disease; it affects men more than women. However, the difference can be explained by the high number of male smokers as compared to women (Miller, 1980).
In addition, malnutrition contributes significantly towards individuals contracting COPD. It leads to the lungs of the fetus not developing fully thus resulting to it suffering from lung infections. Inhalation of polluted air produced by automobiles or solid fuel used also play a significant role towards advancing the occurrence of COPD on the inhalers (Martinez and Wedzicha, 2009).
Management of COPD
Management of COPD is mandatory as lack of this translates to early death of the affected. Management of COPD requires an individual to take appropriate measures in daily activities. For instance, it is crucial for COPD patients to reduce the number of exacerbations by taking inhalers. Patients suffering from COPD also need to pay attention to doctor appointments; this plays a significant role in regulating the rate of advancement of COPD disease (European Respiratory Society et al, 2006). Patients also need to have access to pulmonary rehabilitation centers for better understanding and treatment of COPD. It is also crucial for individuals to avoid risk factors such as cigarette smoking, inhalation of chemicals, and inhalation of dust (Stockley, 2007).
Inhalation of dust
According to Altose and Montenegro (1984), inhalation of cigarette smoke leads to accumulation of kaolinite in alveolar macrophages of cigarette abusers which then may result to respiratory bronchiolitis.
Observable symptoms after inhaling dust
COPD is occasionally associated with difficulties in breathing. It is easily diagnosed by diagnostic test termed as spirometry. Spirometry enables an individual identify and measure the amount of air breathed in and out, and the rate at which air moves in and out of an individual’s lungs (Petty, 1985). In severe condition, the ribs of an individual may appear horizontal with a shortened trachea (Bellamy and Booker, 48). Individuals suffering from COPD also experience hard times when walking, climbing a fleet of stairs.
Special measures for controlling dust disasters
As stated earlier, COPD is mainly caused by intake of cigarette smoke by both smokers and non smokers. Thus, states such as UK will easily reduce the spread and severity of COPD via banning cigarette smoking. Additionally, nations need to introduce smoking zones in order to reduce the amount of cigarette dust in the air that affects non smokers via air pollution (Oregon Thoracic Society and American Lung Association, 1977). Through reduction of air pollution, nations will significantly reduce the rate of the COPD occurrence in the world (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 1993).
How emergency responder recognizes disasters
There is a very close association of COPD to unconsciousness; it leads to heat imbalance in an individual (Rochester, 2000). Individuals suffering from COPD also experience difficulties in breathing; as the disease is associated with brea...
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