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Health, Medicine, Nursing
English (U.S.)
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Digestive system (Essay Sample)


2 Sources 1. Describe the processes involved in the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. 2. Discuss the energy produced from the catabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and fats. Which molecule provides the most energy when metabolized?


The human digestive system is a complex series of organs and glands that processes and converts food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body. The digestive system is essentially a long, twisting tube (The alimentary canal or the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract).) that runs from the mouth to the anus, plus a few other organs like the liver and pancreas that produce or store digestive chemicals
The alimentary canal processes different types of food components every day through the use of enzymes and digestive juices. Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids all pass through the alimentary canal at different pace, and are broken down into unique components and are then absorbed into the body for use as fuel or to repair and build muscles, bones and organs.
Carbohydrates start to digest in the mouth where the process of chewing breaks down food into small pieces then the enzymes in the saliva breaks the complex molecules into simpler sugars which are then swallowed down to the esophagus and stomach with some more digestion. Carbohydrates then move to the small intestine where enzymes produced by the pancreas break down the carbohydrates into the simplest sugar molecules, which are then absorbed by the small intestine walls into the bloodstream and used by the body or sent to the liver for storage for use at a later time. Fiber, an indigestible cell wall which is found in carbohydrate plant foods like brown rice and wheat, passes through the alimentary canal essentially undigested.
Most of lipids that are consumed by the body are fats and oil. Fats and oils do not easily dissolve into the watery digestive juices of the alimentary canal. Most of the Fat digestion takes place in the small intestine where bile a juice produced by the liver breaks up fat globules into smaller particles. This makes it easy for lipase a fat-digesting enzyme to further break down the fat particles into fatty acids and cholesterol. The fatty acids then move into the body cells called mucosa where they are converted back into large...
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