Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases Health, Medicine Essay (Essay Sample)
Assignment: Epidemiology Paper
Write a paper (2,000-2,200 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to a communicable disease.
Refer to "Communicable Disease Chain," "Chain of Infection," and the CDC website for assistance when completing this assignment.
Communicable Disease Selection
5. Hepatitis B
Epidemiology Paper Requirements
1. Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). Is this a reportable disease? If so, provide details about reporting time, whom to report to, etc.
2. Describe the social determinants of health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this disease.
3. Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors. Are there any special considerations or notifications for the community, schools, or general population?
4. Explain the role of the community health nurse (case finding, reporting, data collection, data analysis, and follow-up) and why demographic data are necessary to the health of the community.
5. Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of disease.
6. Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.
A minimum of three peer-reviewed or professional references is required.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
Epidemiology of Tuberculosis
Epidemiology of Tuberculosis
Initially, tuberculoisis was rare in developed countries. However, cases of infections started rising in 1985, with one of the reasons being the emergence of HIV. This is because HIV weakens the victim’s immune system, making it impossible to fight the germs that cause tuberculosis. In the US, the existence of effective control programs led to TB decreasing in 1993, although it remains a major threat today (MacNeil, 2020). Further, medical researchers have established that many tuberculosis strands are drug-resistant to the drugs used for treating the disease. As such, individuals with the condition take different types of medications for several months so that they can successfully eradicate the infection as well as preventing possible cases of growing resistance to antibiotics. Globally, the prevalence race has increased, partly due to the social determinants. However, the role by nurses and WHO in fighting the disease helps in curbing the spread of the disease.
Description of the communicable disease
TB is primarily caused by bacteria, and the disease spread from one individual to another when one inhales droplets that are infected with the germs. This takes place in the event of an individual with active TB sneezing, laughing, coughing, or speaking near individuals who do not have the disease (MacNeil et al., 2019). Despite being contagious, TB is not a disease which is easily caught. For instance, it is difficult to catch it from a stranger at the workplace but easier to catch from a relative or someone with whom you are sharing a house.
An individual can have the TB bacteria in their body but without getting sick due to their immune system. As a result, doctors have distinguished TB into latent TB and active TB. Latent TB is inactive TB; although one has the bacteria in their body, they do not show any signs or symptoms. Its inactive nature also means that latent TB is not contagious (World Health Organization, 2020). However, it can easily advance to active TB, creating the need for patients to seek medical attention as soon as possible even when it is latent. Globally, around 2 billion people have the disease in latent condition.
On the other hand, active TB is the condition that makes one sick and it is easily spread from one person to the other. It take places during the first few weeks after one has been infected with the TB bacteria, althought it can also happen after several years (Goroh et al., 2020). It leads to one developing signs and symptoms such as; coughing blood, coughing which last long, chest pains or pains when coughing or breathing, fatigue, fever, unintentional weight loss, chills, night sweats, and appetitte loss.
Mode of Transimission
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