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Pender’s Health Promotion Model (Essay Sample)


This was a paper on nursing that discussed Pender’s Health Promotion Model. The paper began with an introduction that highlighted the need for the application of the model. Additionally, the introduction had to address which areas the paper will focus on, and the anticipated benefits of the discussion. After the introduction, the paper looked at the background of the theory, which in this case was Pender’s Health Promotion Model. Under this section, the origin of the theory was highlighted and its concepts. The next section of the paper addressed the rationale behind the use of the theory in the nursing profession. In this case, the model offers a framework of configuration to enable a patient to alter certain behaviors to improve their health. The other critical aspect the paper had to address was the practical application of the theory under the implementation section. In this case, it involved initiatives such as the creation of partnerships with various stakeholders in the community and advocacy. The barriers to implementation were also supposed to be discussed in detail before a conclusion section. Fundamentally, the paper found the model appropriate for safety and injury prevention.


Ex. Theory Application Paper: Pender’s Health Promotion Model
Student’s Name
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Instructor’s Name and Title
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At one point or the other, nurses have had experiences that leave scars on their hearts regarding patients. Notable is that such moments highlight the importance of caring for patients who need extra care. For instance, patients who have just come in have been involved in an accident or patients under intensive care, and in a comatose shape a nurse’s professional identity since their care can bring positive or adverse outcomes. The care of such patients can be physically demanding and emotionally taxing, so there is a need to adopt proper health care approaches to ensure that the worst does not occur. One approach that can be adapted is the implementation of Pender’s Health Promotion Model. The model is appropriate for the nursing profession since it provides an action plan that will assist nurses in dealing with unintentional injuries and propagate a suitable patient-nurse relationship that will improve the state of primary health care across many health institutions. In this article, there will be a review of the theory and its application. The specific thematic areas the article focuses on are the theory description, the rationale behind its application, the specific implementation plan, and barriers to implementation. A complete examination of the aspects above will result in a better quality of health in communities with an advanced safety and injury prevention plan for both patients and nursing professionals.
Theory Description
The health promotion model traces its origin to the 80s, with Dr. Nola Pender. Dr. Pender was a career nurse, having worked and attained her university education at the highest level of a Doctorate of Philosophy in Psychology and Education (Butts & Rich, 2018). Further, the doctor is well-known for her conclusion that nursing professionals have the primary objective to provide optimum health care services to their patients. Dr. Pender examines both preventive and health-promoting behaviors in her Health Promotion Model. Specifically, the theory propagates that every person’s individual experience and characteristics will affect the choices and activities regarding their well-being (Butts & Rich, 2018). It is important to note that Dr. Pender describes health as a state of well-being and not necessarily the absence of disease in her model. However, numerous theorists have revised the HPM, and it has affected health care over the years.
In the HPM, the doctor further indicates that there are also behavior-specific cognitions that directly affect a person’s motivation to change (Butts & Rich, 2018). Therefore, any nursing intervention can be applied to the cognitions so that an individual can develop a positive change. Under the behavior-specific cognitions, there are; observable benefits and hindrances to the individual activities, self-esteem, and the activity-related consequence. Pender’s Health Promotion Model also proposes another category known as the behavioral outcome (Butts & Rich, 2018). Under this category, the process of change starts manifesting by the person taking initiatives to change. Specifically, there are observable steps that the person is taking towards achieving a specific change. It is important to note that the person needs support and any hindrances dealt with to ensure there is a positive outcome (Butts & Rich, 2018). Ideally, the HPM aims to stimulate a behavior change, which will lead to a positive result in a patient.
The Health Promotion Model also propagates three main concepts: the individual, their settings, well-being, and nursing (Butts & Rich, 2018). Firstly, the individual is the main focus within the theory. More precisely, an individual’s experiences and characteristics will directly affect their future choices and actions (Butts & Rich, 2018). Therefore, both the patient and health care professional need to pay attention to any learned behaviors in the patient since such behavior will tell if the person can modify their health behaviors (Butts & Rich, 2018). Secondly, the environment reflects upon an individual’s social, economic, and physical situation. According to the HPM, a healthy setting has no toxins, is stable economically, and advances a healthy life for an individual (Butts & Rich, 2018). Thus, how an individual defines well-being will affect their health and disease prevention. Furthermore, the model dictates that motivation enables an individual to prevent diseases and advance healthy behaviors (Butts & Rich, 2018). Conclusively, Pender’s Health Promotion Model indicates that a nurse can nurture health-promoting behaviors in a patient by acknowledging their self-esteem, the benefits that any change brings, control of the patient’s settings, and dealing with any hindrances to change.
The primary reason behind Pender’s Health Promotion Model application in nursing is because health-promoting behaviors are the best approaches to maintaining health. Specifically, health-promoting behaviors entail actions that enable individuals to assess their well-being and improve their health and the entire community in which they live (Khodaveisi et al., 2017). Furthermore, the HPM offers a framework of self-initiated reconfiguration that informs both the nursing professional and the patient on altering behavior to improve health. To be more precise, the framework stipulates that a nurse needs to understand a patient’s simple awareness, standards, and views. Moreover, the nurse should educate a patient on injury prevention and safety and develop suitable interventions to prevent future problems and improve well-being. Most importantly, the model encourages patient autonomy and nurse-patient collaboration in setting goals for handling diseases better, accessing resources, and conducting follow-ups with a patient. Principally, the overall target of the HPM is to advance the well-being and functional capabilities of an individual, which makes it the most appropriate model to adopt in my nursing area.
Implementation Plan
In executing Pender’s Health Promotion Model, the first approach will involve launching Safety and Injury Prevention Campaigns. For instance, individuals will be shown how to set up safety measures in their homes and vehicles, such as installing fire extinguishers inside the house or using booster seats in their vehicles. Secondly, there will be educational programs on safety and injury prevention within the communities. It is important to note that a heightened awareness of risks that come with unintentional injuries coupled with the provision of safety and injury prevention tools has successfully altered the behavior of individuals in marginalized areas. Overall, my first and second approaches in implementing the HPM involve increasing awareness on safety and injury prevention issues among individuals in the communities. Awareness leads to change in health behavior, which results in a positive health outcome.
Another step towards implementing the HPM concerning safety and injury prevention will involve primary health care advocacy and activism. Specifically, there will be a need to lobby for legislation that guarantees the nursing profession and patients harm reduction and advancement in the social determinants of health (Mawji and Lind, 2013). Furthermore, advocacy and activism will push for the incorporation of advanced health and injury prevention methods in health care institutions. Most importantly, lobbying will offer resources to be allocated on tools that increase awareness on health issues surrounding safety and injury prevention. Additionally, advocacy and activism will enable the authorities to put in place an educational curriculum for both children in schools and nursing students on safety and injury prevention. The lobbying plan is successful in Australia, where there has been a change in people’s behavior by instituting legislation (Tulchinsky and Varavikova, 2014).
Another vital part of the implementation plan of Pender’s Health Promotion Model involves the establishment of partnerships. Specifically, this will involve the institution of primary Care alliances of service providers. Such providers will include hospitals, Non-Governmental Organizations, political leadership, government departments, and community groups, among others. It is important to note that such partnerships are strategic and can guarantee the practical application of various health promotion programs within the local communities. Research confirms that health programs are successful when there are community-wide approaches and most specifically where there are partnerships involving NGOs or numerous other relevant stakeholders. In conducting partnerships, the alliances come up with community-wide programs such as charities and fairs to promote healthy behaviors and push individuals to alter their behaviors to improve their well-being. Essentially, the main focus in partnerships is community-wide health promotion by involving all levels of society to reduce risk factors.
Barriers to Implementation
Although evidence illustrating Pender’s Health Promotion Model attains a behavioral change in individuals to promote improved well-being, there are barriers to its implementation. Firstly, the model’s success depends on fulfilling a person’s basic needs and being in a stable condition. Psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors can alter the outcome of an indivi...

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