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Research Proposal on Biology of Psychological Conditions (Essay Sample)




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Capella University
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Research Proposal on Biology of Psychological Conditions
Behavior is a tool that guides human interactions and general perception of how individuals think about a person. Nettle and Frankenhuis (2020) argue that behavior and mental health are two intertwined aspects that are inseparable. Mental health is greatly influenced by behavior and its neurobiological approaches. Further, all humans suffer from one or more mental health issues in their lifetime. However, the degree of the mental health issue warrants a visit to the psychologist's office. Severe mental health is debilitating and affects the occupational functioning of an individual as outlined in DSM-V's criteria of some disorders. Biological psychology explores the relationship between biological factors and their impact on the human mind and reasoning. The biological factors are genetic mechanisms that influence hereditary characteristics of mental health. Genetics influences the biology of neural circuits in the brain leading to behavioral changes. This research proposal intends to explore biological psychology and its influence on behavioral mechanisms.
The hypothesis selected for this article is, "Biological factors influence the biology of mental health."
The non-directional hypothesis is used because the predictive values generated from the research results provide an evidential analysis. The p-value would either prove my hypothesis right or wrong, and a relationship is drawn between the two aspects.
Research Problem
Mental health is crucial because it is often not diagnosed. According to Open Minds (2020), the American Government spends approximately $225 Billion annually on mental health. These values are significant, and diversion to other drivers of the economy is to be evaluated. Diagnosis is often missed because most individuals do not understand that mental health affects their coexistence. Mental health is a problem because most states lack adequately qualified psychologists and psychiatrists to provide adequate medical interventions. The role of the psychiatrist/psychologist is essential because they work cohesively to achieve a reduction in mental psychology. The biology of inheritance greatly influences the prognosis of psychological conditions Rettie and Daniels (2020) argue that genetic inheritance traits have a poor prognosis if present in a family line. Therefore, the psychologist needs to administer aggressive treatment because genetic factors provide a pointer. Thus, understanding the biology of genetics and inheritance is essential to the treatment approaches in psychological ailments.
Psychological Concepts
The cognitive model applies the use of the factors influential in human cognitive processes. The cognitive processes are thinking, problem-solving, perception, and interactions. The cognitive model is the primary factor that shapes human behaviors. According to Busemeyer and Diederich (2010), 80% of the scholarly articles apply this theoretical approach to analyze factors that influence psychological conditions.
The neuroendocrine theory and sociobiological theory are essential in mental health. The neuroendocrine theory argues that a defect in the neurotransmitter serotonin causes psychological conditions such as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The hormone serotonin is essential in regulating mental episodes, and this understanding impacts the sociobiological of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis. The changes in cyclic hormones cause variation in the secretion of neurotransmitter substances, causing disturbances. Cyclic hormones majorly affect women of child-bearing age. The two theories form the basis of the treatment modalities outlined by Del Casale et al. (2019). Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) utilize the neuroendocrine theory. The sociobiological theory recommends the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy.
The neurobiological model is vital in shaping psychological concepts. The neurobiology circuit of mental health entails the frontal cortex, the cingulate gyrus, cortical-striatal-thalamocortical (CSTC) circuits. Changes in this circuit are responsible for the multiple cognitive and affective imbalances experienced by people with a mental health conditions. The neurobiology theory is applied in treatment by the superficial and deep stimulation of the brain areas causing changes in the transmission of motor, cognitive, and affective impulses. This change is critical because there is a general increase in patient outcomes (Lusicic et al., 2018).
Literature Review
The biological approach argues that human behavior is dependent on genetics. The human physiology of behavior is thus shaped with the cognitive model, neurobiological, sociobiological, and neuroendocrine theory. The biological approach encompasses the four theories and thus is an umbrella. Psychosis is defined as changes in perceptions, thoughts, and thinking is influenced by the biological theories described above. Therefore, psychosis as a psychological condition has a relationship with biological theories. These theories are essential because a comparative method is derived. The comparative method provides an analysis of different species of animals using the theories of inheritance and Mendel's theory to study the biology of behavior (McLeod, 2015).
Inheritance is quickly investigated because a psychological condition in a family is a poor prognostic factor in some psychological conditions. The onset of a psychological condition in childhood shows a genetic bearing, and thus, a thorough assessment by the psychologist is recommended. The principles of inheritance, such as heterozygosity and homozygosity, influence psychological conditions. According to DSM-V, the physiology of inheritance is implicated in substance use disorders. Substance use disorders are influenced by the biology of addiction that runs in some family lines. Strathearn et al. (2019) used a meta-analysis review to analyze the various methods essential involved in attachment to substance use. The article reviewed and analyzed 153 different articles on the neurobiology of addiction. The dependent variable was the neurobiology of drug addiction and attachment. The independent variables were oxytocin, glucocorticoid, and dopamine-related pathways. Analysis of the three independent variables indicates a correlation between the various methods that mediate addiction. The hypothesis chosen for this meta-analysis review was proved because animal models revealed that the methods positively impacted the mediation of attachment. The oxytocin theory proved the addiction and attachment to a substance are potentiated by the hormone oxytocin.
Koob (2020) uses a conceptual framework that explains hyperkatifeia, restrictive opposite mechanisms, and reinforcement. This study is qualitative research. The dependent variable is the neurobiology of opioid attachment. The independent variables are hyperkatifeia, restrictive opposite methods, and reinforcement. The independent variables are a mixture of hormonal and physical factors. The independent factors influence the hypothesis because they prove the negative theory processes and emotional states that promote addiction (Burke et al., 2017). A correlation was therefore found. The correlation showed that the biology of addiction in opioid use is correlated to hyperkatifeia, restrictive opposite methods, and reinforcement.
Edwards et al. (2020) argue that concordance genetic trait is vital in studying monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Monozygotic twins have similar genetic makeup, and therefore a psychological condition occurring in one twin is more likely to affect the other twin. Monozygotic twins have concordance that is approximately 80%. The dizygotic twins have a genetic makeup similarity of approximately 50%, and they are disconcordance compared to the monozygotic twins. Dizygotic twins have a concordance of 16-35%. Family data shows that if one of the biological parents has a psychological condition such as a mood disturbance, the offspring will have a 10-25% propensity of developing a mood disorder. If both the biological parents have a genetic makeup with a psychological condition, the risk increases to approximately 20-50%.
The theory applied by Kim et al. (2018) was psychoneurological stimulation and its impact on the biology of obsessions and compulsions. Neuropsychological functioning employs the role of multiple brain areas in regulating the actions that an individual engages. Kim et al. (2019) focus on some brain areas that may cause obsession and compulsive thoughts about a situation. Psychoneurological stimulation is applicable in neuropsychological stimulation of the anterior limb of the internal capsule to cause changes in neurology. Changes in neurology cause newer generations and impulses that modify OCD and other perception and cognitive psychological problems.
Costa et al. (2017) conducted a randomized clinical trial on the role of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of OCD that is resistant to pharmacotherapeutic approaches. This study was conducted in 16 weeks using a population of respondents aged between 18-65 years. The theory is used in the N-acetylcysteine (NAC) mechanism of action. NAC regulates neurological and biological pathways that regulate the secretion of glutamate hormone. Couto and Moreira (2018) state that inflammatory regulation is also a primary theoretical theory in the causation of OCD in the brain following exposure to a brain injury that causes personality changes. The ...

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