Prevalence of PTSD Among Veterans (Essay Sample)
THE SAMPLE HAS DISCUSSED ABOUT Prevalence of PTSD Among Veterans AND factors that are responsible for prevalence estimates of PTSD including the occurrence of PTSD in cases where the disorder occurrences increase the prevalence automatically increases. Duration is also another factor that affects prevalence of a disorder the longer the individuals live with their disorder the higher the prevalence of the disorder. Other factors that affect the prevalence of a disorder include age and gender that are estimated at a particular time. Prevalence estimates are dynamic which means that they can change overtime or places.source..
Prevalence of PTSD Among Veterans
Prevalence can be described as the specific proportion of individuals in a specific population that are affected by a given disorder at that particular time. Prevalence of a disorder primarily is responsible for representing the known cases of the disorder among the members of the population in question. There are various factors that are responsible for prevalence estimates of a disorder including the occurrence of the disorder in cases where the disorder occurrences increase the prevalence automatically increases. Duration is also another factor that affects prevalence of a disorder the longer the individuals live with their disorder the higher the prevalence of the disorder. Other factors that affect the prevalence of a disorder include age and gender that are estimated at a particular time. Prevalence estimates are dynamic which means that they can change overtime or places. PTSD usually manifests itself after an individual experiences or witnesses life-threatening events such as a gruesome accident, natural disasters, physical or sexual assaults, or combat as it is for the case of veterans. In most cases individuals who have PTSD do not have control over what is happening which makes them become afraid. Some cases of PTSD symptoms manifest later after a traumatic event. In other cases, PTSD symptoms come and go over time. The prevalence of PTSD among veterans will be discussed in this literature review.
Key words: Prevalence, combat, post-traumatic stress disorder, veterans
Prevalence of PTSD among veterans varies by service area. Veterans who participated in the Iraqi freedom combats and those who served in other operations within Iraq were noted to have worried cases of PTSD in a given year. About 10 to 20 out of every 100 veterans developed various symptoms of PTSD (Wald et al., 2016). Veterans who participated in the Gulf war were noted to have varied cases of PTSD every year where 12 to 15 out of every 100 veterans developed PTSD in a given year. In the Vietnam War cases of PTSD were more pronounced where about 20 out of every 100 veterans developed PTSD (Wald et al., 2016). Another factor that contributed to the increment of PTSD among veterans was exposure to more stress in an already stressful situation. PTSD cases that are related to combat do not have adequate clarity regarding the prevalence of the disorder especially among veterans. However, there is consistency in the cases of PTSD among the veterans. Over the years there has been sufficient heterogeneity that has existed in the methodology of the studies and general conclusions that have been drawn from the data that is available concerning PTSD among veterans.
One of the most significant evaluations on the prevalence of PTSD among veterans that was written by Kulka et al. (2015) has sufficiently demonstrated various ranges of perspectives that have been responsible for providing data on PTSD among veterans, especially Vietnam veterans. The veterans who participated in the study that was conducted in the 1980s indicated that there was about 15%-point prevalence of PTSD among the veterans. The study also indicated that there was a potential of estimation of more than 200%. A study that was done by Dobbs (2019) indicated that PTSD prevalence among veterans has continued to be a topic of debate. The debates have been responsible for polarizing the psychological fields and in some cases polarizing the politics in the United States. Some of the factors that have led to the continued polarization of PTSD among veterans include decisions about funding of the wars, disability payments, allocations for research, and perspectives of the society regarding PTSD among veterans (Kulka et al., 2015).
A study done by Sullivan (2014) indicated that there are more than 20 million veterans in the United States. The study indicated that the number of veterans will likely increase to about 3 million by the year 2014. 60% of the total number of veterans require mental health services which is an indication that there is a high prevalence of PTSD in the growing numbers of veterans. The study also showed that the number of female veterans who require specialized outpatient PTSD programs were also on the rise according to Kulka et al. (2015). Among the total number of veterans in the United States there was an increased frequency of comorbidities with a primary diagnosis of PTSD. The primary occurring mental health disorders among male and female veterans include anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, dysthymia, major depressive disorders, drug use, and substance use disorders.
Recent studies that have been done concerning PTSD among veterans have indicated that there are serious concerns regarding long-term mental health consequences that come as a result of veterans being exposed to combat. There have been differences in the duration of combat that have led to the mental health consequences among veterans (Wagner et al., 2018). Other factors such as public credibility of purpose and intensity of military conflicts have also been responsible for creating the mental health consequences for the veterans. Some of the answers that have not been provided regarding PTSD prevalence among veterans include the similarity that exists in the psychological effects of combat and the differences in psychological effects among the veterans (Sullivan et al., 2014). There are several relevant factors that have been responsible for the variables that exist when estimating differences in PTSD prevalence rates among veterans. The primary reason as to why there have been challenges when narrowing down the range of point prevalence of PTSD among veterans is because of the significance of credibility of the methods that have been used in the studies. Some of the factors that are primarily considered to be critical mediators when expressing PTSD include duration of combat, and intensity of combat. Other risk factors for PTSD include combat experiences, sociocultural factors, situational factors, and personal vulnerability (Wagner et al., 2018). There are veterans whose PTSD expression is primarily mediated by genetic factors. Age, gender, time of deployment, early conduct problems, childhood adversity, intelligence, and personal pathology are some of the pre-deployment factors that are considered when expressing PTSD. Other minor factors such as poor social support after trauma and family history of psychiatric disorder affect expression of PTSD among veterans. There are also pre-deployment factors that affect expression of PTSD among veterans.
Common characteristics such as characteristics of combat arena, logistic support, duration, and intensity of combat, and unique characteristics of the combat are some of the factors that affect expression of PTSD (Mota et al., 2016). There are a few studies that have suggested that PTSD among veterans is caused by a relationship between combat and pathology that suggests PTSD is not only determined by characteristics of the combat. The study suggests that PTSD among veterans is also dependent on cognitive appraisals of combat (Van Voorhees et al., 2016). According to the study it is clear that the risk of PTSD can be reduced by having good leadership in the combat zones and a soldier having a high unit morale. Most of the post-deployment factors that are responsible for increasing chances of a veteran having PTSD have become central to the prevalence question (Mota et al., 2016). The relationship between exposure and assessment has shed some light on the post-military factors that are responsible for the high prevalence of PTSD among veterans. The primary factors that fall under the category of post-deployment factors include social support, political environment, individual symptoms, PTSD stressors, and circumstances of the veterans.
There is a large percentage of veterans who suffer from clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Most of the veterans who have PTSD Have been diagnosed with psychiatric disorders that are considered to be comorbid. Veterans have also been noted to have decreased mental functioning and physical functioning due to effects of PTSD (Xue et al., 2015). Most of the studies that have been conducted concerning some thresholds of PTSD still lack some consensus. There are veterans who have exhibited symptoms that are below threshold when it comes to PTSD diagnosis. The main reasons that have led to the way veterans exhibit more pronounced PTSD symptoms include continued use and abuse of drugs, social anxiety, alcohol abuse, and participating in activities that increase stress levels and jobs that are depressive (Allen et al., 2016). Allen et al. (2016) also indicates that there is a large percentage of veterans who have suicidal Ideation. The total number of veterans who have been noted to have a lifetime subglacial prevalence is about 13% to 20% with veteran women having more prevalence of PTSD as compared to men.
Cognitive Ability and Risk of PTSD
In a recent research by Nissen et al. (2017) it is proposed that one of the primary factors that is associated with development of PTSD among veterans is cognitive functions and abilities. Most veterans who are considered to be at a higher risk for development of PTSD are veterans whose intelligence is below average. Minor risk factors for PTSD that include military rank are primarily affected by the intelligence of the veteran. Social support is also a factor that causes PTSD among veterans especially in cases where non-significant factors and post deployment factors are in the correlation (Mota et al., 2016). Veterans who have higher intelligence are likely to develop cognitive abilities ...
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