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The Discussion on Electrical Potential Across Semipermeable Membrane (Essay Sample)

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Electrical potential is important in different cellular processes. The presence of electrical potential or electrical gradient promotes the conduction of nerve impulses in the neurons. Thus this shows the significance of electrical potential in the nervous tissue. To create an electrical potential, two forces are required. These forces include chemical concentration gradient and an electrostatic force. The chemical concentration gradient comes as a result of the process of diffusion. Diffusion is characterized by the movement of particles or molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration (Kotnik et al., 2019). This occurs across a semipermeable membrane which permits only some type of molecules while others do not cross through it. The electrostatic force is generated when molecules of different (opposite) charges attract each other while those with the same charge repel each other thus EXPLAINS the electrostatic force.

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Electrical Potential Across Semipermeable Membrane
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Electrical potential is important in different cellular processes. The presence of electrical potential or electrical gradient promotes the conduction of nerve impulses in the neurons. Thus this shows the significance of electrical potential in the nervous tissue. To create an electrical potential, two forces are required. These forces include chemical concentration gradient and an electrostatic force. The chemical concentration gradient comes as a result of the process of diffusion. Diffusion is characterized by the movement of particles or molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration (Kotnik et al., 2019). This occurs across a semipermeable membrane which permits only some type of molecules while others do not cross through it. The electrostatic force is generated when molecules of different (opposite) charges attract each other while those with the same charge repel each other. This explains the electrostatic force.
The cell contains many molecules of which some are positively charged while others are negatively charged. It has potassium ions and sodium ions which are positively charged while chloride ions, proteins which are negatively charged. Thus not all of them cross the semipermeable membrane. Potassium ions (K+) cross the cell membrane to the extracellular side following the creation of a concentration gradient. Due to their positive charge, it leads to the creation of electric potential on the semipermeable membrane while the intracellular side becomes negatively charged. Thus the electrical gradient is responsible for the movement of the potassium ions towards opposite direction relative to the concentration. As time goes by and as this process continues, it comes to a point where there is no movement or exchange of the potassium ions across the membrane (Sinha et al., 2018). This is referred to as equilibrium potential thus a balance between the electrical potential and concentration gradient. This also happens for the potassium ions which are positively charged.
In a cell membrane, there is a sodium-potassium pump that helps maintain the concentration gradient whereby it allows potassium ions into the cell while sodium ions are pumped out of the cell (Pirahanchi et al., 2020). Thus this pump is essential for the maintenance of a balance of the concentration gradient.
Movement of potassium towards extracellular space
229552524101223336251933572352650248285 Potassium channel
5257800165735 Equilibrium potential created
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