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Computer Hradware and Software Research Assignment (Essay Sample)


The task was to explain the basic structural composition of a computer hardware and software. This sample provides a response to the question by explicitly explaining various components of a computer hardware and software, how they are coordinated and the process of executing a command.


Computer Hardware and Software
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Computer Hardware and Software
A collection of various physical parts of a computer system constitutes its hardware. They are very essential components that together with the operating software systems make up a functional operating computer. These components are important when considering applications to install in a computer. An operating system software equally manages the computer software and hardware components and supply distinct services for computer programs. This report shows how hardware components are vital to application installation in our computers.
Computer hardware
Hardware components of a computer includes internal computer case such as motherboard, hard disc drives and video cards, peripherals for example cameras and printers, monitor, keyboard and mouse. They are mainly categorized according to their specific purposes either output, input, processing or storage. Processing components work with the data to achieve the purpose of the operating system. Inputs on the other hand accepts data in the computer and make it ready for processing. Output takes processed data and make it accessible by other computer systems. Storage components equally keeps the processed data for later use by the computer. In addition, Control components coordinates all activities of all other components of a computer system.
Motherboard is the major component of the hardware system and most essential element in computer operations. It consists of an integrated circuit that connects with the remaining parts of a computer to coordinate functions. Its major components include the central processing unit (CPU), which is the central controller of all computer functions, a chipset that coordinates the links between CPU and other parts of the system, read only memory (ROM) that consists of the basic input output system (BIOS) responsible for powering on the computer, Buses links CPU and expanded cards, CMOS battery that supplies power to the BIOS chip for booting up the system and video card used for processing graphics and playing video games (Patterson & Hennessy, 2017).
A computer hardware system also consists of expansion cards that are important in extending the functionality of a computer through insertion in the motherboard, storage devices used for keeping, importing and extraction of data files, fixed media such as hard disk drives and solid state drives used for data storage, removal media such as USB flash disks and optical disks that are important for transferring files between computers. Of major importance are also the input and output peripherals of a computer hardware. Input peripherals are devices that help in keying information into the computer like mouse, touchpad and keyboard while output devices display information to end users in a form that is readable (Patterson & Hennessy, 2017). For example, printers and monitors.
Other important components of a computer hardware include the computer casing which encloses the major elements of the system. This case provides protection and support to delicate internal hardware features like motherboard and disk drives. It is also helpful in controlling electromagnetic effects from interfering with the normal operation of the computer. The power supply hardware called power supply unit (PSU) is useful in the conversion of electric power to low voltages as specified by manufacturers.
Operating System Software
A computer operating system is a software that monitors both hardware and software resources. The system also integrates various programs that are important for the functionality of a computer. Operating systems can be classified as time-sharing systems that are essential in scheduling of tasks and execution of computer commands (Silberschatz, Galvin & Gagne, 2014). They also comprise of accounting software that are efficiently utilised in processing, mass storage and printing. Operating systems are useful in coordinating both the hardware and software programs in a computer. Some of the most dominant operating systems that are installed in desktops include Microsoft windows, macOS and Linux while Android and iOS are commonly featured in mobile phones.
Operating systems can be classified into various categories according to their programs. Most common categories include; single and multi-tasking software. While a single-tasking system only operates one program, a multi-tasking operating system allows for concurrent operation of two or more programs. This is due to the time-sharing features that enable division of processor time through a task-scheduling subsystem. For efficient execution, the multi-tasking program can be executed in two different types, that is, pre-emptive and co-operative types. In pre-emptive multi-tasking, the operating system is integrated with the CPU and assigns slots to respective programs (Silberschatz, Galvin & Gagne, 2014). On the other hand, cooperative multi-tasking can be obtained by dependence on every process that provides time for orderly execution of commands.
Another category is single and multi-user. A single user operating system does not provide facilities that distinguish user interfaces even though it allows concurrent execution of multiple programs. A multi user operating system contains facilities that are useful in enabling ident...
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