Regulation of Gene Expressions Life Sciences Essay (Essay Sample)
Scenario: Your student asks you, “If every cell in my body has the same DNA, how are they specialized? Is my pancreas cell making insulin all the time? Why isn’t my liver cell also making insulin?”
Your task is to address your student’s questions by starting with a well-studied example of gene expression in bacteria. You will then provide examples to demonstrate the regulation of gene expression in humans.
A. Create an original visual aid or series of visual aids (e.g., diagrams, models) that compares how the lac operon is regulated when only glucose is present versus when only lactose is present.
1. Illustrate the following in the visual aid(s):
• the structural components of the operon: lacZ, lacY, lacA, lacI, operator, and RNA polymerase
• the level of expression of this operon in the presence of only glucose compared to the presence of only lactose
• one factor that activates expression of this operon
• one factor that represses expression of this operon
2. Explain why expression of the lac operon is different when only glucose is present versus when only lactose is present.
B. Describe two mechanisms, other than mutation, that human cells use to regulate the expression of a gene.
C. Discuss two examples of a particular gene being regulated appropriately in a human cell.
Note: Because insulin is in the scenario, it cannot be used as one of your examples for part C.
D. Acknowledge sources, using in-text citations and references, for content that is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized.
E. Demonstrate professional communication in the content and presentation of your submission.
Regulations of Gene Expression
The lac Operon Regulation
Glucose and lactose are the main sources of energy for E. coli bacteria in the human body. The bacteria prefer glucose to lactose due to the ease of synthesis for use as a source of energy. Therefore, E. coli bacteria requires lac operon, a group of mRNA genes whose role to protein encoding to allow for lactose synthesis as a source of energy in the absence of glucose. The lac operon is expressed to performs its role of encoding protein enzymes to allow the uptake and metabolism only under the condition that glucose is not available and lactose is available (Nickle & Barrette, 2019). The lac repressor and catabolite activator protein (CAP) are the regulatory proteins involved in the lac operon transcription as lactose and glucose sensors respectively. The proteins regulate lactose transcription based on the relative levels of glucose and lactose irrespective of the lac operon DNA (Nickle & Barrette, 2019). The diagram below illustrates the structure of the lac operon.
3143251631951914525172720313690172720-352425287020CAP site00CAP site
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