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Critical thinking (Essay Sample)


The sample is about answering some psychology questions. No references were required 1. Distinguish between operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and social learning. How are these different kinds of learning utilized in the work place? Give specific examples for each one. 2. How is prejudice developed and nurtured through classical and operant conditioning? Give specific examples that demonstrate each kind of learning. 3. You are scheduled to present the results of your work on creating a new software program for your company. What memory techniques will you use in order to be free of too much dependence on notes and the PowerPoint slides? Be specific as to how you will relate the technique to the content of the presentation. 4. Name and describe the three qualities of emotional intelligence according to Sternberg and Gardner? If you were interviewing applicants for a position in your company and wanted to know if they had emotional intelligence, how would you go about discovering that? Would you do that in an interview or by some other means?


Social learning, operant and classical conditioning are essential concepts of behavioral psychology. Although the three concepts result in learning, it is clear that these approaches are distinct and result to different types of learning. B.F. Skinner was the first to introduce operant conditioning, where he viewed it as a process of learning that occurs as a consequence of either positive or negative behavior. Operant conditioning allows human beings and organisms to learn by engaging in certain behavior because of the effects elicited by that behavior. In workplaces, operant conditioning is used to reinforce positive behavior leading to the desired outcomes, with rewards playing a major role.
Conversely, a specific stimulus such as food is used to elicit a response in classical conditioning. From Pavlov’s experiments on classical condition, the concept is described as a process by which a specific stimulus such as food is used to elicit a specific response which is then elicited. This process of learning associates one event with another desired event resulting to modified behavior.
On the other hand, social learning mostly occurs with the organism less aware that learning is taking place. This may involve observation, reinforcements and through imitation among others. Albert Bandura developed this concept of learning, and viewed that individuals tend to develop an understanding of the social consequences of behaviors, as they may form new patterns of self-regulation and behavioral expressions. Social learning is essential in workplaces for growth, especially among new employees and workers who do not have the required experience in the workplace to handle stuff such as machinery.
Prejudice can be developed and natured through operant and classical conditioning. Operant conditioning can foster prejudice by demeaning other people to gain their attention or approval, and to increase self esteem. For instance, a parent may reinforce remark on a child to foster racial prejudice in the child by disapproving relationships with other black children. Prejudice can be acquired or natured in classical conditioning in various ways such as through fear, attitude, or phobia among others. For instance, if a person is stung by a spider or a bee and suffers from great pain, he or she will be conditioned to fear on the sight of a spider or bee.
The use of memory technique is essential especially when one wants to avoid too much dependence on PowerPoint slides or notes. Some of the common memory technique that I would use in such a presentation include: the use of acronym, acrostic, rhyme keys, image-names, key words, and chaining among others. Use of acronyms involves joining the first letters of each word to form a phrase, while acrostics involve making a sentence through first letters cueing. Key words, especially foreign words, are selected to remember a statement, while chaining helps to relate and remember the next idea. Image name is also an important technique that allows the presenter to link an image and name with characteristics in order to remember. These techniques are known to enhance creativity, thus making one confident.
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