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Chicago
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Social Sciences
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Social Class And Patterns Of Health And Illness In Modern Society (Essay Sample)

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Assessment of social construct and meaning of disease and illness

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SOCIAL CLASS AND PATTERNS OF HEALTH AND ILLNESS IN MODERN SOCIETY
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England is well-known for having one of the finest healthcare systems in the world. When the NHS was created in 1948, it was designed to make healthcare fair and equal to everyone. Whilst life expectancy and modern medicine have increased across the society, there still remains a difference between social classes, a gap that is rapidly widening. The Victorian era first linked death and types of jobs people did for a living in the Chadwick study in 1842. Ever since that study, a number of reports have been focused on this issue such as the Brown Report in 1980. Such reports have been crucial in enhancing the understanding on where to focus attention for policy formulation and implementation. From a broader outlook, however, despite the concerted efforts from different stakeholders, the same problem exists in other developed countries that also have fair healthcare systems, such as Sweden.[ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "abstract" : "We have compiled some key statistics on the NHS. This data was last updated in July 2017 and the figures apply to England, unless otherwise stated. References, where applicable, are footnoted and available at the bottom of the page.", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "NHS Confederation", "given" : "", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "NHS Confederation", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2017" ] ] }, "title" : "Key statistics on the NHS - NHS Confederation", "type" : "webpage" }, "uris" : [ "http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ba00b385-a87b-4aa8-bc60-4dc43a219ece" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "formattedCitation" : "NHS Confederation, \u201cKey Statistics on the NHS - NHS Confederation,\u201d NHS Confederation, 2017.", "plainTextFormattedCitation" : "NHS Confederation, \u201cKey Statistics on the NHS - NHS Confederation,\u201d NHS Confederation, 2017.", "previouslyFormattedCitation" : "NHS Confederation, \u201cKey Statistics on the NHS - NHS Confederation,\u201d NHS Confederation, 2017." }, "properties" : { }, "schema" : "https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json" }NHS Confederation, “Key Statistics on the NHS - NHS Confederation,” NHS Confederation, 2017. 58.] [ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "ISBN" : "Gateway Reference 18347", "abstract" : "From:Department of HealthHistory:Published 13 November 2012 Applies toEngland ... Sets out the outcomes and corresponding indicators used to hold the NHS Commissioning Board to account for improvements in health outcomes", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Department of Health", "given" : "", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "Nhs", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2013" ] ] }, "page" : "1-20", "title" : "The NHS Outcomes Framework 2013/14", "type" : "article-journal" }, "uris" : [ "http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=851bc5fe-abaa-4f08-b1ac-aa263396ac4d" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "formattedCitation" : "Department of Health, \u201cThe NHS Outcomes Framework 2013/14,\u201d Nhs, 2013, 1\u201320.", "manualFormatting" : "Department of Health, \u201cThe NHS Outcomes Framework 2013/14,\u201d Nhs, 2013, p.20.", "plainTextFormattedCitation" : "Department of Health, \u201cThe NHS Outcomes Framework 2013/14,\u201d Nhs, 2013, 1\u201320.", "previouslyFormattedCitation" : "Department of Health, \u201cThe NHS Outcomes Framework 2013/14,\u201d Nhs, 2013, 1\u201320." }, "properties" : { }, "schema" : "https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json" }Department of Health, “The NHS Outcomes Framework 2013/14,” Nhs, 2013, p.20.] [ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.1111/j.1468-4446.2007.00171.x", "ISBN" : "1468-4446", "ISSN" : "00071315", "PMID" : "18076391", "abstract" : "From the start individualization theory is the investigation of the paradigm shift in social inequality. Furthermore it shows, how the transnationalization of social inequalities bursts the framework of institutional responses - nation state (parties), trade unions, welfare state systems and the national sociologies of social classes. In this essay I shall try to conceptually elucidate the 'cosmopolitan perspective' on relations of social inequality in three cases: (1) the inequality of global risk; (2) the Europe-wide dynamic of inequality; and (3) transnational inequalities, which emerge from the capacities and resources to transcend borders. Before that I take up Will Atkinson's question: 'What exactly constitutes individualization and to what extent has it really displaced class?' (Atkinson 2007: Abstract).", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Beck", "given" : "Ulrich", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "British Journal of Sociology", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issue" : "4", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2007" ] ] }, "page" : "679-705", "title" : "Beyond class and nation: Reframing social inequalities in a globalizing world", "type" : "article-journal", "volume" : "58" }, "uris" : [ "http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d9f4c248-ddff-42aa-8629-f83eae5aa349" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "formattedCitation" : "Ulrich Beck, \u201cBeyond Class and Nation: Reframing Social Inequalities in a Globalizing World,\u201d British Journal of Sociology 58, no. 4 (2007): 679\u2013705, doi:10.1111/j.1468-4446.2007.00171.x.", "manualFormatting" : "Ulrich Beck, \u201cBeyond Class and Nation: Reframing Social Inequalities in a Globalizing World,\u201d British Journal of Sociology 58, no. 4 (2007): p. 693", "plainTextFormattedCitation" : "Ulrich Beck, \u201cBeyond Class and Nation: Reframing Social Inequalities in a Globalizing World,\u201d British Journal of Sociology 58, no. 4 (2007): 679\u2013705, doi:10.1111/j.1468-4446.2007.00171.x.", "previouslyFormattedCitation" : "Ulrich Beck, \u201cBeyond Class and Nation: Reframing Social Inequalities in a Globalizing World,\u201d British Journal of Sociology 58, no. 4 (2007): 679\u2013705, doi:10.1111/j.1468-4446.2007.00171.x." }, "properties" : { }, "schema" : "https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json" }Ulrich Beck, “Beyond Class and Nation: Reframing Social Inequalities in a Globalizing World,” British Journal of Sociology 58, no. 4 (2007): p. 693.] [ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "URL" : "http://www.nhs.uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/about/Pages/nhscoreprinciples.aspx", "abstract" : "Read about the seven key principles that guide the NHS in all it does. They are underpinned by core NHS values which have been derived from extensive discussions with staff, patients and the public.", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "NHS", "given" : "", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "NHS Direct", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2013" ] ] }, "title" : "The principles and values of the NHS in England - NHS Choices", "type" : "webpage" }, "uris" : [ "http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=87ce0035-3910-42d0-868b-8c6fd534d00b" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "formattedCitation" : "NHS, \u201cThe Principles and Values of the NHS in England - NHS Choices,\u201d NHS Direct, 2013, http://www.nhs.uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/about/Pages/nhscoreprinciples.aspx.", "plainTextFormattedCitation" : "NHS, \u201cThe Principles and Values of the NHS in England - NHS Choices,\u201d NHS Direct, 2013, http://www.nhs.uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/about/Pages/nhscoreprinciples.aspx.", "previouslyFormattedCitation" : "NHS, \u201cThe Principles and Values of the NHS in England - NHS Choices,\u201d NHS Direct, 2013, http://www.nhs.uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/about/Pages/nhscoreprinciples.aspx." }, "properties" : { }, "schema" : "https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json" }NHS, “The Principles and Values of the NHS in England - NHS Choices,” NHS Direct, 2013, http://www.nhs.uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/about/Pages/nhscoreprinciples.aspx.]
There are a number of theories about why this is the case and the most obvious problems, such as diet and lifestyle choices only account for 30% of this problem. The health disparity, therefore, becomes a complex, multi-layered issue that, unless it is well addressed, will continue to worsen, despite being well recognized for a long time. Health care professionals can play a significant role in seeking the solution by focusing on the neediest in the population. Although they already have strategies and are doing all they can, more can be done especially in the multidisciplinary policy formulation. It should be a concern that sociologists, policymakers, and healthcare professionals have focused on this inequality yet the problem still exists.[ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.1002/9781444347388.ch5", "ISBN" : "9781444330397", "ISSN" : "01957732", "PMID" : "65064782", "abstract" : "\"This comprehensive collection of classical sociological theory is a definitive guide to the roots of sociology. The volume explores the pioneering minds of Marx, Durkheim, and Weber, who developed our modern idea of society; and looks at the powerful influence of the works of early sociologists Mead, Simmel, Freud, and Du Bois. It concludes with the major works and theoretical perspectives of the mid-twentieth century, including those of Adorno, Marcuse, Parsons, and Merton. As a whole, the reader traces the evolution of soci...

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