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Barriers to Pakistani Women Pushing a Pilot Career (Essay Sample)


the task was mainly to discuss the challenges that Pakistani women face when they are pursuing their pilot careers. this sample has gone into detail regarded those challenges.


Literature Review
Barriers to Pakistani Women Pushing a Pilot Career-
Religious minorities lag in educational achievement, and Muslims lag behind all other religious minorities (Shaikh, 2011, p51). Shaikh investigates career progression in British Muslim women and notes the educational disparities across the community. A third of all working Muslim individuals have no communication, and only 12 percent are likely to have a higher academic qualification. Muslim women, a majority of Pakistanis and Bangladeshis, have an estimated population of 1.2 million in Britain, and 40% of the Pakistani women have no academic qualification. In addition to the no-qualification tag, it has been noted that women from these particular groups disappear from the preparatory stages of progression to higher education institutions (Shaikh, 2011, p51). Jejeebhoy and Sathar (2001, p694), in their investigation on women autonomy in India and Pakistan, find out that "with regard to women in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab, Muslim women are more likely to be denied education than Hindu women. Ali, Krantz, Gul, Asad, Johansson, and Mogren (2011, p7) affirm that women's illiteracy rates are higher than that of men in Muslim communities. This inequality is particularly present in Pakistan, and they attribute it to early and forced marriages with consequential early pregnancies and childbirths and the pronunciation of the boy child preference. Shaikh (2011 p52) notes that the issue of visibility on Muslim women has also become somewhat a hindrance to their educational aspirations. "They are increasingly reluctant to take part in higher education, which involves regular attendance and interaction."
The boy preference and patriarchy are dominant traits of South Asian cultures (Farooq, 2020, p387). From an early stage, society and family teach its members about gender appropriateness and guide them through the patriarchal system's cultural and societal behavioral channels. Gender stereotyping is the main tenet of the system where gender roles are taught, emphasized, and encouraged. New roles are shunned, especially women's current roles (Hussain, Naz, Khan, Daraz, and Khan, 2015, p9). According to Farooq, authority is vested in men who assume superiority by taking care of most of the families' responsibilities; therefore, boys become assets and the girls who expect to be taken care of becoming burdens. The lack of structural development in most Muslim communities fosters the existence of this gender and role segregation. Women in villages rarely own property, and even though they have a legitimate claim on their income, customary laws limit their control over the income (Farooq, 2020, p387-394). More so, females are constrained from working longer hours, traveling to distant places, or relocating resources. This lack of encouragement and support deeply rooted in discriminatory social and cultural traditions and values deny women equal opportunities and management positions (Manzoor, 2015 p418). Despite the prevalence of the patriarchal society, Farooq (2020, p398) reveals that Pakistani society is changing at a good pace, and more women are contesting male-dominated public spaces. However, female education, gender ratios, and healthcare still have to be addressed.
In the Pakistani community, young married women were expected to focus on domestic work (Farooq 2020, p398). Women also embraced these social control systems to remain bound to their families. Ali et al. (2011, p3) reports that women perceive their husbands as their rulers and must acquire permission to perform any activity. Mothers in law have an oversight authority to teach traditional interpretations of religious doctrines and maintain discipline. Part of the traditional thinking is that women are part of a man and therefore have no authority to challenge the man or say no (Ali, 2011, p5). Arifeen and Gatrell (2020, p233) affirm that women are required to seek permission from their parents for work entitlement. They add that married women also seek consent from in-laws and husbands to continue working after marriage. This continuous process of seeking viability, negotiating for career choices, and the risk of refusal limits women's autonomy and career choices. Despite the individual agency of interpreting religious and family imperatives, Arifeen and Gatrell find that even though the glass chains linking women to faith and family are strong and potentially limit careers. However, women actively sought to loosen the chains if they could justify doing so (Arifeen and Gatrell 2011, p227).
Women's autonomy in terms of decision-making, mobility, freedom, and access to economic resources is limited in Pakistan (Jejeebhoy and Sathar, 2001 p707), and existing cultural barriers impact females' decision-making power (Manzoor, 2015, p423). Manzoor's findings on the impact of indigenous culture on female leadership in Pakistan reveals that females in Pakistan are controlled and have no power to make basic decisions. These limitations affect their approach towards life, and the inability to make decisions reduces their willpower to pursue their dreams. Although Pakistan has had a female prime minister, and this encourages female participation in top professions, the traditional eye that females are perceived with restricts progress and success (Manzoor 2015, p423). The traditional perception has a misogynist quality adopted by both males and females. Aminnuddin (2020, p113) indicates that women in Muslim societies agree that higher education is more important for men than women. Sarwar and Imran (2019, p11) Explore Women's Multi-Level Career Prospects in Pakistan and affirm that women are less ambitious and prefer to spend extra time with their families, and considered professional careers secondary to family.
Contrary to traditional thought propositions that religion restricts women's education, Shaikh (2011, p50) reveals that the "role of knowledge is very important in Islam." Knowledge is a desired trait or quality by all Muslims, and no religious scripture or teachings of the prophets hinders the pursuit of learning for Muslim women. An investigation on women's perception of education in Muslim societies by Aminnuddin (2020 p115) reveals that the community ensured education for all irrespective of their genders and resources. The community understood and valued education as an Islamic virtue and were willing to make sacrifices to educate children. However, the women agreed there is still a need to promote awareness of education for both genders. Hamdan (2012, p201) also notes that "there is a growing awareness of the Muslim Scriptures' strong endorsement of women's education and participation in all aspects of public life.". However, Sarwar and Imran (2019, p7) indicate that Muslim women in Pakistan understand that it is the misrepresentation of traditions as religious guidance that gives rise to the negative stereotypes.
Financial Support Available For Pakistani Women in Their Pursuit of a Pilot Career-
Although there is no evidence of specific aviation scholarships from the Pakistani government, Husain (2005, p14) highlights Pakistan's strategic thrust of education sector reforms. Economic developments in Pakistan foster education improvement through universal primary education, a renewed focus on technical and vocational education, and higher education, science, and research capacities. Girl students in Punjab province are awarded monthly stipends to support their education. However, there are numerous external scholarship opportunities for general aviation students, women, and marginalized students. The Amelia Earhart Memorial Scholarships Funds offers scholarships to individuals in the emerging economy country – those not members of the G20. The eligibility criteria are to be enrolled in an approved education program and continue towards achieving a degree or certificate in aviation studies (AEMSF, 2021).
'Women in Aviation international' targets women with dreams in aviation and aerospace careers. Membership is acquired at a fee and can include international students living outside the United States interested in pursuing aviation careers. The students must be full-time high-school or college students (WAI, 2021). The aviation distributors and manufacturers association assists youth aviation students pursuing careers in aviation. "The student must complete two consecutive semesters in a four-year program at an accredited post-secondary institution, majoring in Aviation Management or a Professional Pilot Program OR a first-year student in an Aviation and Piloting Program at a two-year accredited institution" (ADMA 2021).
The "national business aviation association" scholarship program offers school fees reimbursement and cash awards for enrolled students and professional training awards. This scholarship only includes students and professionals that have been successfully enrolled in NBAA affiliated institutions.
The Viability of Pakistani Women Pursuing a Pilot Career
Men and women often pick careers that match their gender roles; as men move towards male-oriented careers, females gravitate towards female-oriented careers (Nadeem and Khalid, 2018, p464). The cultural zeitgeist in Pakistan is slow to change; there is a change in female career choices. Men are not likely to pursue female-oriented careers; on the other hand, it is seen as a progressive move when females move to pursue a male-oriented career. Therefore, due to current higher education social standings, females choose male-oriented careers as a "process of enhancing improving their life goals by aspiring for greater roles in their lives whether occupational, educational or social" (Nade...

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