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The Marine Pollution: Baltic Sea and Gulf of Mexico (Essay Sample)


evaluate the Environmental issues in context of identifying social (including cultural, political, and institutional) economic and biophysical (physical and environmental) dimensions of a contemporary issue, which is marine pollution.


Marine Pollution
Marine pollution results in cases when harmful products enter into the ocean in form of chemicals, agricultural waste or industrial waste materials. Air pollution has also resulted to marine pollution through dissemination of pesticides while land has contributed to a very big portion of the causes of marine pollution (Clark, Frid, & Attrill, 2007). On this regard, this paper seeks will evaluate the Environmental issues in context of identifying social (including cultural, political, and institutional) economic and biophysical (physical and environmental) dimensions of a contemporary issue, which is marine pollution.
The pattern of coastal settlement and the industrial developments decreases the spread of coastal vegetation hence causing destruction to larger areas such as the mangroves trees. In addition, other ecosystem factors have a big effect like inhibiting the silt and the nutrient outflows to the marine environment, such as allowing sewage animal waste and soil during heavy rains (Wood & Johannes, 2006).
Overexploitation of fisheries and destruction of marine habitats through dredging has also resulted to marine pollution. This has resulted to rise in coastal development and release of sewage materials near the sea shores causing a lot of nutrients spreading to the ocean or sea. Combining such factors with variation in salinity, melting sea ice, changes in sea currents, and melting sea ice could have an effect to the marine life and cause difficulties due to climatic effects.
Human factors such as discharging waste water to the oceans or seas have also resulted to marine pollution. For instance, in Latin America the discharge to Caspian Sea, which is untreated, has resulted to enormous effects to the marine lives (Diwan & Arora, 2009). To contain the challenge, an estimated cost of US$56 billion should be spent on an annual basis. In addition, the coast that could be used to control loss in fisheries, tourism, and human health risk could be far much greater. Other human activities that have an effect to the marine environment include merchant shipping, pleasure crafts, and aquaculture installations among others (Hofer, 2008). Fertilizers run-off from the farming sectors have also been a challenge in the coastal areas and marine lives. The nutrients that are contained in the fertilizers cause eutrophication, which lead to reduced oxygen dissolved in the water hence affecting the marine life (Diwan & Arora, 2009). Eutrophication has posed as a dead zone factor in many parts of the world such as Baltic Sea and Gulf of Mexico.
Discarded plastic bags that are attracted to the propellers of the boat have some effects on the engines. In addition, the loss of the habitat and biodiversity has an effect on the provision of food and services to the marine habitats. This could lead to extinction of fishes, which could lead to lack of food to the people who depend on fish (Khee & Tan, 2005).
Oil spills is another factor that cause marine pollution. Oil spillage cause damage to the marine habitats by causing inefficient oxygen and polluted food (Hofer, 2008). Marine pollution has resulted to economic losses to the communities and individuals across the globe. The beauty of the ocean and coastal zone has been hampered. In addition, the loss has been caused to fisheries, cooling water intakes, fishing boats, contamination of the beaches and harbors, and livestock (Ofiara & Seneca, Washington, D.C.).
Noise pollution like sounds from ships, oil rigs, sonar devices, and earthquakes can lead to interruption of communication, migration patterns, hunting and even reproduction norms of marine animals like dolphins and whales. In addition, the solid waste bags and other items dumped into the oceans from the land or from the boats at oceans are consumed by the marine animals hence causing effects to their lives (Johnston, 2007).
The effects of climate changes also have an effect to supply of nutrients, wind patterns, ocean activities, and food chains. Such factors affects the distributions, breeding patterns and the spread of marine habitants, which many people rely on as a source of food and income (Vernberg, 2009).
The effects of toxic waste on marine animals such as oil spillage are regrettable. For instance, in the long term it could cause cancer, behavior changes and death to the marine animals. The alteration of cycle of the coral reefs is also associated with oil spillage floats. It leads to reduced sunlight from reaching the marine plants hence affecting the process of photosynthesis in the plants (Hofer, 2008). Eye and skin irritation, lung or liver problems are also caused to the marine habitats.
Failure of reproductive system of the sea animals as a result of poisonous chemicals is another effect. This is due to accumulation of the fatty tissue in the animals leading to poor functioning or else failure of reproductive systems (Hester & Harrison, 2011). Once the chemicals that are used in the industries and agriculture areas are washed to the rivers and thereafter directed to the oceans, they do not dissolve but sink at the bottom of the ocean, and are eaten by the animals hence affecting the whole process of the food chain.
Looking at the extent of the harm that marine pollution has caused in different aspect of lives, it is important to a culture of practice that could enhance reduced instances of marine pollution. For instance, everyone should ensure that they dispose their litter responsibly when visiting the coastal regions. Also, there should be no disposal of pollutants in the coastal environment (Vernberg, 2009).
The authorities under concern should ensure cooperation with tourism sector to develop proper measures necessary to reduce marine pollution. Also there should be collaborative and regulatory instruments, which mobilize the industries to decrease activities causing ...
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