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Multimodal Argument Analysis (Essay Sample)


write a Multimodal Argument Analysis on ntersectionality in Feminism


Essay 3: Multimodal Argument Analysis
Background Information Pertaining to “Intersectionality in Feminism”
Intersectionality in feminism has taken a bigger space in public discussions recently. However, it is not new as much as it was incorporated in the Merriam-Webster dictionary this year. It is defined as ‘the complicated, cumulative way in which the outcomes of various discrimination come together, and overlap’ (Lykke 197). This means that discrimination does not exist in a bubble since the many forms of prejudice can be amplified in many ways when combined. Intersectionality in feminism is a critical ideology that many people find confusing.
           Intersectionality in feminism was first employed by Kimberle Crenshaw – a scholar and civil rights advocate in the late 80’s (Lykke 200). This was after she realized gender and race were referred to as entirely separate issues. As a student, Crenshaw found it challenging how the two issues were being studied in isolation. Moreover, women of color were being discriminated against especially in law. Therefore, she employed the Degraffenreid case versus the General motors case to demonstrate intersectionality in feminism. This case is still used up to date as an illustration of intersectionality in feminism. The case revolved around five African American women that sued General motors for gender and racial disparities. Ultimately, the women were found to be not discriminated against in matters about jobs. Moreover, the fact that the company had African American factory workers disproved the claims. However, the courts ignored that most of the secretaries in General motors were women and factory workers were men.
           On the other hand, intersectionality in feminism in the present day is depicted differently. Crenshaw admitted she was not the first person to reveal the real meaning, since women dating to the 19th century such as Angela Davis and Anna J Cooper had articulated the issue (Lykke 199). Hence, as Crenshaw based her argument on the former foundations, modern feminists build on hers. Currently, intersectionality in feminism goes beyond gender and race intersections. It is used in the present day to demonstrate the association with any forms of discrimination including age, class, economic status, abilities, religion, and ethnicity (Smith 2). 
           What makes a film depict intersectionality in feminism relies on popular culture, film scholarship, and women's education. However, there are questions associated with power from a feminist sociological perspective. The 70s films on women are dubbed images of women since women were represented in historical contexts, stereotypes, and the characters being role models for girls (Smith 3). In the present day, there are many questions on the portrayal of women in films that are termed feminist. This is because women use power in different contexts of film.
Evaluation and Analysis of Argumentation in “Hidden Figures”
Hidden figures depicts the discrimination that African American women endued in the American community. It reveals the challenges African American women experienced against the double discrimination in NASA (Ikawati 66). Intersectionality in Feminism as an approach in this paper argues that social change in gender and race equality can be achieved with a spirit to conquer the double discrimination in NASA during the cold war period. Racial discrimination is depicted in the form of receiving little access to the facility, underpaid salary, and accusations of black empowerment (Theodore and Shetterly 40). On the other hand, gender discrimination is portrayed by limited education, limited chances of career development, and minimal appreciation and acknowledgment in the organization. 
The women however resist through covert and overt resistance in an attempt to acquire the justice and freedom they need. Thus, African American women react to the gender and race inequalities by excelling in their endeavors through hard work, following the system and going against the system, ignoring the discriminatory practices and focusing on better fortunes, and recruiting more women to join them.
Black feminism points to the encounters of black women experiencing the unconscious racism of the world’s assumptions and language. This is discrimination, which is defined by Smith (2013) as the unfavorable treatment of women based on patriarchal beliefs on women (16). Therefore, women experience crude treatment because they are perceived as objects and are less inferior compared to men. This is depicted by the presence of double discrimination – gender and racial discrimination. According to Smith (2013), any challenge against sexism has to be associated with the challenge against racism (17). The double discrimination in Hidden Figures defines the oppressions of women and members of minority groups.
Crenshaw’s purpose of intersectional feminism is depicted in the film by ensuring the characters’ life encounters are based on how their multiple identities intermingle. Therefore, acknowledging how the various forms of discrimination interact with and amplify gender and racial discrimination is important in ensuring women achieve the benefits of women’s rights.
Hidden figures film builds a fallacy by using a fictional character, Paul Stafford to take the role of a white-collar statistician. The character was created to represent the racist and sexist attitudes that were a norm in the 50s. hence, he thwarts all efforts of Katherine to progress, including her work qualifications to those of a secretary. Moreover, Stafford omits her in-line official reports and job qualifications by stating, ‘women do not have to attend space program briefings’. Regardless, Stanford’s perception of women changes, which is emphasized in a warrant, when he serves Katherine a cup of tea.
A depiction of slanting is in the employment of dramatic license which could not possibly occur that way. This is because the film’s white savior is witnessed after noticing Johnson had wasted important computing time rushing in between the black and white sides to use a segregated washroom. However, NASA had removed segregated sections in 1958. Furthermore, Johnson maintains she used the unlabelled white washrooms by accident and then by defiance.
Johnston’s promotion in Hidden figures to the Space Task Group is a fallacy as it patronizes how the white savior moments were portrayed in 1961 (Theodore and Shetterly 140). Johnson had joined NASA in 1958, after spending five years in the flight research section, and helped to write a report in 1961 (Theodore and Shetterly 140).
Examination of Aristotelian Elements
Hidden figures incorporate the Aristotelian element of ethos, pathos, and logos in the film to strengthen the argument on the challenges African American women experienced against the double discrimination in NASA. First, pathos is the most obvious element in the film. When discrimination is introduced in the movie, the characters employ a less formal tone. This is seen when the movie refers to how Germany discriminated against Jewish citizens by restricting them to certain kinds of jobs and depriving them of certain rights. Moreover, Jews were worked to death in the slavery camps and were marked for extermination (Theodore and Shetterly 144). This was, therefore, hard for African Americans to persevere the annihilation in Europe without identifying it with their challenge against violence, being deprived, and slavery. The film has a lot of emotion depicting that what happened to Jews matched the struggles of black women.

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