8 pages/≈2200 words
Communications & Media
Communication and Modernity (Essay Sample)
Communication and Modernity source..
Communications and Modernity Introduction The late 19th and early 20th centuries are periods that witnessed a number of themes that influenced the societal lifestyles and perspectives. Remarkably, the themes experienced during the period were holistic and affected every aspect of life, which comprise political, social, environmental, and economical. Scholars and leaders of the time practiced these themes and encouraged the masses to practice them. Some of the themes apparent in the late 19th and early 20th centuries include capitalism, industrialization, and liberalism. These themes influenced the lifestyles of the masses and led to development of behaviors practiced by the modern societies. It is within this context that the essay examines capitalism, industrialization, and liberalism themes in the quest map out how the societies practiced them in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Themes Capitalism Capitalism is a theme that emerged in the middle ages and gained momentum in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Although the theme was present in the middle ages, its influence was not evident. However, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, several countries and states began practicing the theme in a more considerable manner. Individuals, corporations, and leaders started championing for a system of economy that increased the amount of profits, while utilizing the human resources. According to Yamazaki, several countries wanted an economic system that increased returns from investments at a minimum expenditure (36). The chief focus of the time was increasing the output and minimizing the input especially financial input. As such, several companies used their human resources in way that limited their wages and increased their output. Imperatively, during the period, several workers in various parts of the world such as the United States became subjects of oppression, exploitation, and poor treatment from their superiors. The poor treatment accorded to the workers in companies, plantations, and other state and private enterprises was due to the need to increase output and profits. Campbell highlights that the prevalence of hard treatment accorded to workers in various enterprises of the United States in the 19th and early 20th centuries was due to the need for more profits and revenues (42). Since capitalism is a theme that encourages individuals and companies to increase profits and individual gain, exploitation of workers witnessed in state and private companies during the 19th and early 20th centuries compounds its presence and role in the period. Unlike present times when societies focus on equal treatment and pay for an equivalent effort, the time was common for poor pay and exploitation. The theme of capitalism began influencing the lifestyles of several individuals in the 19th century and heightened in the early 20th century. Practically, the theme is still prevalent in the present societies and dictates various activities and practices in contemporary enterprises. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, large companies worked hard to achieve monopoly common in several markets that have unequal competition. Trigilia explains that capitalism has had its way and has penetrated the present societies of the world (80). The explanation clarifies the fact that some societies, which initially did not like the policies advanced by these themes, are currently instituting them in an attempt to advocate for the themes. In effect, the presence of monopolies in a number of markets during the time explains the presence of capitalism, which advocates for inequality among societies and enterprises. Capitalism is a theme that can lead to high levels of inequality amongst individuals (Baker 339). As a result, societies that practice the theme usually demonstrate gaps between the rich and the poor as opposed to societies, which practice socialism. By practicing the concept, countries, enterprises, societies, and individuals demonstrated the presence of capitalism and its influence during the period. Industrialization Fundamentally, the period also had influence from the theme of industrialization. The theme of industrialization became more apparent in the 19th century and progressed in the early 20th century. Remarkably, the theme is not only evident in pieces of literature, but is also clear in the political, societal, and cultural behaviors of the people, who lived at the time. Yamazaki asserts that societies of the time embraced industrialization and executed their activities in accordance with the concept (57). Equally, several governments also engaged in activities that promoted the theme. Therefore, the roles that industrialization theme played in the 19th and early 20th centuries compounds its fundamental nature. Significantly, various features, which dictate the modern society, owe their emergence to the era when the theme manifested. It is notable to explain that during the period, several industries developed and small enterprises that initially served domestic requirements expanded and became large scale. Factors such as increased mobility and technology catalyzed the theme of industrialization. Since several companies could employ technology and use it to increase their levels of production and the quality of products, the number of consumers and markets for their products augmented. According to Livesey, various places in the world experienced a shift from agrarian and domestic based culture to industrialized cultures in the 20th century (102). As such, it is imminent that the theme of industrialization is one of the themes that exerted a substantial influence during the period. The advent of industrialization led to high levels of employment and concentration in areas or locations where the industries and processing plants established their facilities. Masses thronged these sites with the intent of acquiring technical or white-collar jobs, a factor that led to urbanization. The high number of people, who left rural areas and other regions that did not have industries and went to areas where industries had their facilities is an indication that the period indeed had industrialization as a theme. Yamazaki asserts that during the 19th century people of the United Kingdom witnessed a rise in the number of large-scale factories, which provided employment to thousands of individuals (20). With the initiation of industries and processing plants in certain regions, other businesses developed, and thus, the birth and growth of urban centers. As opposed to individuals, who lived during historic times and practiced agriculture in a small scale, the people, who lived during the 19th and early 20th centuries were more liberal and practiced advanced forms of agriculture. The agriculture practiced at the time was mechanized and large scale, an implication that the quantity and quality of their products was high. Mechanized forms of agriculture amplified the influence of the theme, which became a major player used by governments and the masses in the quest improve their economic positions among others in the society. In the elucidation of Faure, industrialization was a theme that saw development of superpowers and first world economies (165). Several nations that currently enjoy a developed status owe their progress to industrialization that dictated their operations in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. As such, scholars and historians of the time highlight the theme as one of the major themes that affected the lifestyles of the masses during the period. Liberalism Industrialization and capitalism increased the levels of production, and in turn, increased the amount of job opportunities. The increase in job opportunities and the presence of capitalism led to exploitation of the masses that worked in the several industries and business enterprises around the world. Owners of businesses and industries compelled their human resources to work for long hours with little pay. The implication of exploitation that the owners of businesses and industries practiced on their human resources initiated lib...
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