Theories of Happiness and Friendship Social Sciences Essay (Essay Sample)
the work involved two tasks;
1) First, TO give a thorough explanation of Epicurus's theory of achieving happiness in life. Next, use Aristotle's point of view to raise 3 objections to Epicurus, making sure to relate those objections to specific points you made in the prior section. Then, evaluate those objections from your own point of view; are they stronger than Epicurus's own position, and why or why not? Finally, “improve” Epicurus; what modifications would you make to his theory in order for it to provide an acceptable blueprint for living your own life?
2) i was to give a thorough explanation of Aristotle's theory of friendship. Then, referring to specific points that you just made, critique Aristotle's notion of friendship from Kant's point of view. Next, critique both Aristotle and Kant from Hobbes's point of view – which view of friendship would he agree with, which disagree with, and why? Finally, argue for the superiority of either Aristotle or Kant in framing your own interactions with others.
Theories of Happiness and Friendship
Epicurus’s theory happiness states that the pursuit of pleasure is an end in itself and every endeavor is pursued as a means for achieving happiness. According to Epicurus, pleasure is the foundation of every aversion and choice, it is the human’s first and associated good (Bergsma, Germaine and Aart, 413). However, Epicurus identifies that pain and fear are an obstruction to the body’s ability to achieve ultimate satisfaction. He argues that our self-imposed believes such as the fear god’s punishments and constant worry about death are elements making our lives unhappy and painful. He recommends that these believes are fiction and shouldn’t be the cause of our fear and anxiety because although gods exist, they are perfect in their own self and do not trouble themselves with the affairs of humans (Bergsma, Germaine and Aart, 414). Epicurus also states that these Gods are not the final cause of things in human’s life.
Aristotle objects Epicurus’s idea that pleasure alone results in happiness by asserting that humans have greater capacity that animals who are solely driven by chasing for pleasure (Kraut, 61). Aristotle states that indulging and practicing in virtuous deeds brings fulfillment in life unlike Epicurus who defines fulfilled and successful life as one lived without pain in the body and soul. According to Kraut, Aristotle objects Epicurus’ theory that god is not the final cause of things in our lives by emphasizing that God is important in our existence and other than giving us a purpose, He is the ultimate cause of all things (p. 66).
In own point of view Aristotle’s arguments about attaining happiness are stronger than Epicurus’s because pleasure and happiness is defined by the reason and the motive to pursue them. I believe that the means should justify the end and not vice versa. Epicurus’s theory of achieving happiness can be an acceptable blueprint to living my own life if it can provide specific definition to which pleasures that are really gratifying and enjoyable and the necessary pain that produces actual pain or pleasure. I would make adjustment to Epicurus’s theory by adding virtues such as impartiality and courage because they justify the means of elimination of pain in pursuit for happiness.
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