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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
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Lab Report
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Exploring the Association between Gene Evolution, Gene Copy Number, and Amylase Enzyme Production (Lab Report Sample)

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lab report
Exploring the Association between Gene Evolution, Gene Copy Number, and Amylase Enzyme Production
include introduction, methods, result, discussion and conclusion

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Exploring the Association between Gene Evolution, Gene Copy Number, and Amylase Enzyme Production
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Abstract
The purpose of the experiment was to determine the association between gene evolution, gene copy number, and amylase enzyme production. The study hypothesized that the amount of amylase enzyme would be directly proportional to the AMY1 genes. Furthermore, the study speculated a higher amount of AMY1 genes among the people who consumed higher amount of starch. The study involved analysing the saliva and buccal cell from the sample population recruited from the university students. The DNA fragments from the samples were determined using the PCR as guided by the McMaster University Biology 1A03 Lab Manual. The amount of the AMY1 genes were compared with AMYI protein concentrations in the samples. The results indicated a positive correlation between the AMY1 proteins and the AMY1 genes copies. On the other hand, the study did not find a significant correlation between the AMY1 genes and the amount of starch consumed and this is an area to explore further. The possible sources of errors in the experiment results include inaccurate measurements and the use of limited sample size. Future studies should consider having a larger sample size and exploring other factors likely to affect the AMY1 genes to improve the accuracy and reliability of the findings.
Introduction
The evolution of the Hominin was characterized by significant changes in the phenotypic characteristics. Furthermore, the evolution process was characterized by significant changes in the dietary intake. According to Rukh (2017), many mammals can digest starch using the Amylase enzyme which is produced by the pancreas and the amount of enzyme produced is directly proportional to the substrate concentration. The amylase enzyme in human being is produced by the salivary glands by the gene Alpha 1A (AMYIA). Human beings have various copies of genes coding for the enzyme; though, the actual number of genes vary from one person to another. In addition, the study indicates that the number of genes varied with the amount of starch consumed (Rukh, 2017). Unrelated animals inhabiting different areas and consuming unique food but have similar number of the amylase genes.
The amount of amylase enzyme produced by the enzymes is different from what the current generation would produce. The study by Rukh (2017) indicated that people who consume high amount of starch had higher copies of the AMYIA genes and this would result in the increased production of the enzyme. On the other hand, other studies found that people from different parts of the world having different diets could also have the same number of AMYIA genes. The amount of genes produced in an individual depend on various factors. According to Rukh (2017), the amylase genes are similar among a givens species and could be due to the similarly in their dietary patterns or other factors.
The evolution of the amylase locus in the human lineage is not well understood and so this is an area of great significance that needs further inquiry. The purpose of this study is to determine if “there an association between gene evolution, gene copy number, and amylase enzyme production?” From the studies conducted in other mammals as covered in the literature reviewed, this study hypothesizes that the gene copy number and the amylase production is directly proportional to the gene evolution. The increased gene copy numbers in mammals result from the duplication events. Similarly, an increase in the gene responsible for the production of amylase enzyme will result in the increased amount of enzyme being produced. In exploring the hypothesis, the study will uses an experimental method, data and results from unknown students from the Western Asia. The population in Western Asia consume a lot of starch; therefore, the AMY1 diploid gene copy number and the amylase production will be high.
Methods
The experiment was conducted according to the McMaster University Biology 1A03 Lab Manual. The buccal cell and saliva sample from the unknown students were collected and then analyzed using the PCR procedure as outlined in the manual. The number of AMYI copies were then determined using the gel electrophoresis. The concentration of the Amylase enzyme was then determined and measured in mg/Ml. The concentration of the enzyme and the gene copies were compared to determine whether there was any correlation. Scatter plots were constructed to derive the correlation relationship. The amount of amylase protein in the various samples were measures spectrophotometrically under the wavelength of 620nm.
Results
The results from the experiment indicated a positive correlation between the diploid AMY1 gene copies and the AMY1 protein molecules. The correlation coefficient value for the association was 0.817276 which is a strong positive correlation between the variables.
The graph below shows the scatter plot for the relationship between the amylase enzyme concentration and the copies of the gene responsible for the production of the enzyme.
Fig.1 : The scatter plot for AMY1 concentration against AMY1 gene copies.
Furthermore, there were significant variations in the amount of the AMY1 enzyme concentration among the sample populations depending on the region of origin.
Discussion
The results from the experiment were consistent with the hypothesis. The study hypothesized that the amount of AMY1 enzyme produced is directly proportional to the AMY1 gene. The results indicated that people who had a higher number of the gene would produce more AMY1 proteins. The samples collected from the participants were serially diluted to obtain a measurable value that could be used in estimating the relationship between the variables. The analyzed data indicated a strong correlation between the gene copies and the amount of the enzymes produced and this is consistent with the findings from the study conducted by Hamid et al. (2021). The correlation coefficient value was 0. 817276 which is significantly high. Furthermore, the study also hypothesized that the amylase concentration was directly proportional to the starch consumed. However, there was inconsistencies in the findings obtained from the study and so making it difficult to accept or reject the hypothesis. There is a need to conduct further studies using a large sample population to obtain a more reliable finding.
Furthermore, the study conducted by Pajic et al. (2019) explored the relationship between the salivary amylase and the AMY1 gene copies. The study recruited a total of 127 participants from the Lee County and Macon County. The study explored other factors such as the implication of the BMI on the AMYI gene. The results indicated an inverse relationship b

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