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Literature & Language
Load Paths, Geotechnical Engineering (Lab Report Sample)
CALCULATIONS FOR SOIL MECHANICS AND CONCRETE DESIGNS source..
Load Paths, Geotechnical Engineering By Studentâ€™s Name Course Code+ Name Professorâ€™s Name University Name City, State Date of Submission Question 1: The L/B ratio = 6/2= 3>2 hence the load will be distributed in one directions Typical floor slab supported by beam 4 Total design loads = 3.0 KN/m2+2.0KN/m2= 5KN/m2 Total uniformly distributed loads= WL = 5KN/m2x (2m+2m) =20 KN/m Typical Beam 4 section Total load at beam 4 = WL = 20KN/mX6m= 120KN Loading at column c2 = WL/2 120 K/2= 60KN C2= 60 KN Load at beam 6= half the load at beam 4+half the load at beam 7 Beam 7=beam 4=120KN Point loading at beam 6= 120KN/2x2=120 KN Typical beam 6 section Load transmitted to beam 3 is half the load from the beam 6 Beam 6 load =120KN/2 =60 KN Beam 3 load =60 KN Loads transmitted to column 1(C1) = load from beam 3 divided by a half =60KN/2 C1 =30 KN Question 2: Four major geotechnical applications found in a large construction project and how they feature in engineering. 1 Foundation design â€“ foundation is the lowest part of the building/structure on which the superstructure rests on. It transmits the loadings from the structure directly to the earth. Foundation type is determined mainly by the soil bearing characteristics and the loads imposed. For large projects where heavier loadings are imposed, itâ€™s safe for the geo-engineers to ensure that the ground is hard and safe to support the intended loading (Lee, 1983). The loadings are both static and dynamic. Itâ€™s the responsibility of a geo-engineer to decide the best the best type of foundation for a given project. 2 Retaining walls- itâ€™s usually used for lateral earth support. It is a structure that holds back soil or rocks from hitting or interfering with the construction works. The main feature observed when designing a retaining wall, is to ensure that the lateral earth pressure/ water pressure do not exceed the bearing lateral stresses of the retaining wall (Pitilakis, 2007). Also, the engineer must consider the live and the dead loads of the wall to come up with an ideal design. 3 Soil improvement- this is the process of upgrading a soil with poor qualities. This can be achieved by the physical actions, such as vibration and compaction, or by introducing and mixing a soil of superior qualities. The main aim is to increase the load bearing capacity, reduce the differential and absolute soil settlement or to eliminate the risk of liquefaction in the case of earth tremors and earthquakes (Lee, 1983). Itâ€™s the work of the engineer to determine the desirable soil to be used, the appropriate method of soil improvement and whether the desirable qualities have been achieved after the soil improvement. 4 Soil testing- itâ€™s the analysis of soil samples to determine the properties of that soil. Critical data is obtained from soil testing. This data enables an engineer to determine the suitability of a particular soil, the type of foundation to be used in such soils, the groundwater table, strength of the soil, density, organic contents (Mete Oner, 1996). Also, accurate data is obtained from the soil which aids engineers to monitor the project throughout its construction process Question 3: Classifications of foundations There are two major classifications of foundations. 1 Deep foundations- this category of foundations transmit the loads further down into the earth, as compared to the shallow foundations. They are commonly used where weak soil strata are encountered and the load to be transmitted is heavier than the soil bearing capacity of the topsoil (Mete Oner, 1996). Two main types are used in deep foundations which are: driving piles through the week soils till a hard ground is reached. And the second method involves drilling a hole through the weak soil till the firm soil is established. 2 Shallow foundations- these are the types of foundations that transmit the loads near the top surface of the Earth. They are used where the ground is hard enough to bear the imposed loadings, and where the imposed loads are not intense. These foundations are mat-slab foundations, pad foundations, rubble trench foundations, and spread footing foundations. B. Factors that determining the type of foundation required for a particular structure. Several factors are used by engineers to determine the type of foundation for a given structure, they include. * Type of the soil- the type of soil will determine if the loading from the structure will be supported. Soils with weak qualities cannot adequately bear heavy loadings and thus are considered unsafe (Lee, I. K., White, W., & Ingles, O. G. 1983). If the ground is poor in characteristics and qualities, then the engineer has to ensure that deep excavations are done till the desirable soil is found. However, in the case of stable soils, shallow foundations are ideal as they can withstand the loads imposed. * Loads from the structures- the loadings are vital in the determination of the foundation type to be used in a project. The loads include the self-weight/dead loads, the imposed loads such as snow, furniture, traffic and wind. A building that has substantial loadings require deep foundations and firm soil to safely transmit the loading, however, structures bearing less loading do not need very deep foundations. * Adjacent properties- when deciding the type of foundation to use, itâ€™s important to consider the data which was obtained when constructing the adjacent structures. Such comparison can determine the success or failure of the proposed foundations (Mete Oner, 1996). Choice of deep foundations, too close to the existing structures may weaken the adjacent building, hence the need for underpinning. * Economic considerations- itâ€™s a goal of an engineer to ensure that the choice of a foundation is safe, secure and it does not offset the financial budget allocated. After the engineer has determined the safety and adequacy of a foundation, he is also inclined to choose the most pocket-friendly method that doesnâ€™t offset the safety. Question 4: A. importance of soil stability This is the ability of soil to support the loads applied to it without failure. Itâ€™s the highest average contact pressure between the structureâ€™s foundation and the ground. The theoretical highest pressure that can be supported by a given soil without failure is called the ultimate bearing capacity. However, the allowable soil bearing pressure is the ultimate bearing capacity divided by the factor of safety (Pitilakis, K. D. 2007). Itâ€™s crucial to know how a particular soil behaves when itâ€™s under loading, its bearing capacity and its likely mode of failure in case the limit is exceeded. This helps the engineer determine which soil can withstand high loads and the once tha...
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