Urine Analysis (Lab Report Sample)
write a detailed report discussing your Urine analysis results you obtained during the session. I have attached my lab results. Please discuss them in details and do not attempt the paper if you are not conversant with biology or such a test. note:- please make sure to read the full instructions and the files I attached before starting. At the end of each section make sure you indicate a reliable website or book you referred to.source..
Urine Analysis Report
24 Hours Input and Output
* 6:30 Am woke up and void.
* After the first void urination, I started taking notes of bout my fluid intake and output.
* 7:30 Am took breakfast with 15 oz. water and 6 oz. fresh fruit juice.
* 10:30 Am Drank 8 oz. of fresh fruit juice.
* 11:00 Amfirst void urination of9 oz.
* 12:30 Am Drank 6 oz. of water and 8 oz. of Arabic tea
* 1:00 pm took lunch and I had 10 oz. of water.
* 2:00 pm void and collected 12oz. urine.
* 3:00 pm I had 12 oz. of coke.
* 4:00 pm void urine measured8 oz.
* 8:00 pm I took 10 oz. of juice during dinner.
* 9:00 pm I collected the final void for the data measuring8 oz.
The tally of the total intake and the total output was then determined. The dayâ€™s total intake of fluid tallied to 75 oz. or 2218 Milliliters. On the other hand, the dayâ€™s total void urine was 37oz. or 1094 Milliliters indicating that the void is much lower than the intake.Both input and normal output volumes are in line with the expected normal and recommended volumes. The normal urine output for healthy adults fall within the range of 800-2000 milliliters. However, as taught in class, several factors such as temperature and diet resulted to the difference in the input and output volumes. Additionally, the difference in the output and input volumes could have resulted from fluid loss through other means such as sweat.
My consumption of Arabic tea increased my urine output. This is because tea contains caffeine increases glomerular filtration in kidneys by decreasing the tubular reabsorption of sodium ions back to the distal convoluted tubule. Water reabsorption from the distal convoluted tubule follows the flow of sodium ions out of the distal convoluted tubule. Therefore, decreased sodium reabsorption leads to a decrease in water volume leaving the renal tubule hence increasing urine output.
Towards the evening, I noted that my urine had a strong odor and was concentrated. This was caused by the diuretic effect of caffeine by inhibiting the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). A fall in ADH levels leads to increased water loss in the form of urine. This eventually leads to dehydration making urine output decline and be more concentrated hence the strong odor.
The dipstick results have been attached
For healthy and normal persons, urine should not contain leukocytes. The presence of leukocytes would be an indication of localized infection along the urinary tract.
Nitrite tests are used to access the presence or absence of bacteria in the urine. A negative result denotes the absence of bacteria in the urine. In their metabolism, bacteria convert nitrates to nitrites. Hence, a positive result would be indicative of the bacterial presence in urine and a possible bacterial infection.
Urobilinogen- small+ - 2.0
An urobilinogen result of 2 is a positive result indicating small amounts of urobilinogen. Normal urobilinogen results are those less than 17umol/l (1mg/dl). Urobilinogen is from Bilirubin in the intestines, and some of it is reabsorbed into the bloodstream. The positive result could be indicative of a liver disease such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, and hemolytic anemia. Moreover, the abnormal level would be indicative of liver overburdening, poisoning, and failure to produce bile or hindrance of bile passage. /hc_uc-hs_urobilinogen.html
Protein- small 100++
A 100++ result of protein is a positive result for the presence of small amounts of proteins in urine. In normal and healthy adults, proteins are not present in urine. This is because the kidney functions to hinder the passage of large molecules such as proteins through blood by allowing filtering out of only small sized molecules. Where small amounts of proteins pass through, the body reabsorbs such proteins and uses them as energy sources. Normal results are valued less than 150mg in 24 hours. Small traces of protein may occur in urine in high levels of protein in blood even in the presence of a proper functioning kidney. Additionally, even in normal blood levels, proteins may appear if the kidney is diseased. Abnormal results may be indicative of diabetic nephropathy, urinary tract infection, congestive heart failure, Good pasture syndrome, Lupus erythematosus, and multiple myelomas amongst other cause. /hc_uc-hs_protein.html
The kidney plays a major role in regulating acid-base balance in the body. Normal results fall within the range of 4.6 to 8.0. Urine pH could be affected by conditions such as alkalosis, acidosis, and ingestion of basic or acid ...
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