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# Stoichiometry of Reactions in Solution (Lab Report Sample)

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INSTRUCTIONS: Stoichiometry Formal Lab Report
Introduction:
-Explain what an acid base titration is.
-Explain what strong acids and bases are.
-Say what indicator was used.
-Say what information you were trying to find (the ratio of moles of acid to moles of base).
SAMPLE: SHOWS THE RESULTS OF quantitative acid-base titrations and determine the simple mole ratio of the reactants. THE PAPER ALSO PROVIDES THE THEORETICAL BASIS OF THE LAB REPORT

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Stoichiometry of Reactions in Solution
Introduction
The objectives of the experiment were to conduct quantitative acid-base titrations and determine the simple mole ratio of the reactants. A titration is a laboratory technique of reacting known volume and concentration of one reactant with another reactant of known volume. It is usually done to find the concentration of one of reactant. Typically, it involves adding the titrant from a buret slowly into a fixed volume of analyte in the flask until the reaction is complete. The volume of titrant used is read out from the buret, and so the moles of reactants used can be calculated from known concentrations. The moles of reactants were used to determine the experimental mole ratio of the reactants. An acid-base titration is one of the most common titration procedures performed in laboratories. Acid and base reacts to form salt and water in a chemical process referred to as neutralization. The titration procedure involved a reaction between a strong acid and base. A strong acid and base dissociate/breaks up completely in solution/water to produce hydrogen ion (H+) and hydroxyl ion (OH-) respectively (Ebbing and Steven 625). Examples of strong acid and base used in the experiment were hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. In the experiment, an indicator was used to mark the end point or the point at which the reaction between the acid and base was complete. At the end point, the moles of reactants used are equivalent as predicted by theory. The indicator used in the experiment was phenolphthalein that changed color from pink to colorless at the end point. .
Procedure and Observations
The buret was thoroughly rinsed thrice with the sodium hydroxide solution. The buret was the clamped to its stand. It was filled with NaOH to a level that was slightly above zero. A small amount of the NaOH solution was drained into the beaker to remove air bubbles. 10mL of HCL was measured using volumetric pipette, and poured into the 50ml Erlenmeyer flask. 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator was added into the HCl solution followed by further addition of 15ml distilled water. The flask was positioned properly under the buret. The initial volume of the NaOH solution in the buret was recorded. Thereafter, stopcock was opened. NaOH was added slowly into HCL solution and the flask swirled to mix the two solutions. More of NaOH was added into the flask until the pink color of the solution faded. The final volume of the buret was recorded. The process was repeated using the same procedure but with sulfuric acid (H2S04). The procedure was also repeated by replacing NaOH with barium hydroxide but maintaining the acids, hydrochloric and sulfuric.
Data
Concentrations of Reagents Used
Reagent

Concentration

HCl

0.06517M

NaOH

0.09817M

H2SO4

0.07192M

Ba(OH)2

0.06000 M

Table of Results
Titration of NaOH + HCl

Volume of NaOH (mL)

Moles of NaOH

Volume of HCl (mL)

Moles of HCl

Experimental Ratio of NaOH : HCl

Theoretical ratio

6.3

6.18X10-4

10.0

6.52X10-4

0.95:1.00

1.00:1.00

6.1

5.98X10-4

10.0

6.52X10-4

1.08:1.00

1.00:1.00

Titration of NaOH + H2SO4

Volume of NaOH (mL)

Moles of NaOH

Volume of H2SO2 (mL)

Moles of H2SO4

Experimental Ratio of NaOH : H2SO4

Theoretical ratio

14.2

1.58X10-3

10.0

7.19X10-4

2.20:1.00

2.00:1.00

15.8

1.55X10-3

10.0

7.19X10-4

2.16:1.00

2.00:1.00

Titration of Ba(OH)2 + HCl

Volume of Ba(OH)2 (mL)

Moles Ba(OH)2

Volume of HCl (mL)

Moles of HCl

Experimental Ratio of Ba(OH)2 : HCl

Theoretical ratio

5.90

3.54X10-4

10.0

6.52X10-4

1.09:200

1.00:2.00

6.00

3.60X10-4

10.0

6.52X10-4

1.10:2.00

1.00:2.00

Titration of Ba(OH)2 + H2SO4

Volume of Ba(OH)2 (mL)

Moles Ba(OH)2

Volume of H2SO4 (mL)

Moles of H2SO4

Experimental Ratio of Ba(OH)2 : H2SO4

Theoretical ratio

13.3

7.92X10-4

10.0

7.19X10-4

0.91:1.00

1.00:1.00

13.0

7.80X10-4

10.0

7.19X10-4

0.92:1.00

1.00:1.00

The following reaction equations were used to calculate the theoretical ratio of the titration reactants. .
HCl+NaOHâ†’NaCl+H2O
H2SO4+2NaOHâ†’Na2SO4+2H2O
2HCl+Ba(OH)2â†’BaCl2+2H2O
H2SO4+Ba(OH)2â†’BaSO4+2H2O
Data Analysis and Calculations:
Sample Calculations
Moles of reactants used were calculated using the volume and concentration of the reactants. The moles were used to compute the experiment...
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