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Titration Sodium Carbonate-Hydrochloric Acid Neutralization Reaction (Lab Report Sample)


Prepare a full titration lab report and answer the following:
When preparing a standard solution why is it important to completely dissolve the chemical (i.e. sodium carbonate) you are using before making the solution up to the meniscus mark in the volumetric flask?
Why do you not rinse your conical flask with your solution before you add in your 20mL of solution using the volumetric pipette?


Practical Report on Titration for the Sodium Carbonate-Hydrochloric Acid Neutralization Reaction
by Student’s Name
Professor’s Name
City, State
Practical Report on Titration for the Sodium Carbonate-Hydrochloric Acid Neutralization Reaction
Aim: The aim of this practical report is to accurately report on the process of titration and the techniques involved in the process. Specifically, the aim is to determine the concentration of a hydrochloric acid solution using titration techniques using a standard solution of sodium carbonate.
Methods: Refer to Chemistry Practical Experiments – SP2 2020 pages 17-22 CITATION Fud20 \l 18441 (Fudge, 2020). There were no changes made for this experiment.
* Due to COVID-19, the practical experiment was discussed in a theoretical manner, and no in-person labs were conducted. Data Samples were used from the provided source
* The initial mass of anhydrous sodium carbonate used was somewhat more than the amount used in other experiments similar to this.
* There were no noted observations on odour, colour deviations, and technique observance.
* Since the labs were done in theory, errors in execution of the experiment were not present.
Table 1 shows the results of the measurements and calculated values for the preparation of the standard solution of sodium carbonate. It shows the mass of the anhydrous sodium carbonate dissolved in deionized water to make the standard solution. From this, the moles of sodium carbonate present in the deionized water is computed using the molar mass of sodium carbonate. Finally, the concentration of the standard solution was computed.
Table 1. Preparation of the Standard Solution of Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) Results


Mass of anhydrous sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) used

1.9272 grams

Moles sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) used*

0.0181 mol

Concentration of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) solution*

0.07 mol/L

*refer to Calculations

Sample Calculations for the Standard Solution of Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)
Molar Mass of Na2CO3:

22.99 g/mol

* 2

= 45.98 g/mol


12.01 g/mol


= 12.01 g/mol


16.00 g/mol


= 48.00 g/mol


= 105.99 g/mol

Moles Na2CO3:
mol Na2CO3=mass Na2CO3molecular weight of Na2CO3
mol Na2CO3=1.9272 g Na2CO3105.99gmolNa2CO3 =0.0182 mol Na2CO3
Concentration of Na2CO3 standard solution:
Molarity Na2CO3=mol Na2CO3volume of volumetric flask
M Na2CO3=0.0182 mol Na2CO30.250 L =0.07molLNa2CO3
Table 2 shows the titration results for the rough, first, second, and third determination. It contains the initial and final burette readings per determination. The titres were calculated by subtracting the initial burette reading from the final burette reading. The average of the first through third titres was calculated as well.
Table 2. Titration Results for sodium carbonate/ hydrochloric acid neutralization reaction (Data adapted from Titration Sample Data for Students- Amy Farrah Fowler Data.

Initial Burette Reading (mL)

Final Burette Reading (mL)

Titre (mL)

Rough Determination




First Determination




Second Determination




Third Determination




Average titre (First to Third Determination)


Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1 Raw data for titration experiment.
Figure 1 shows the raw data used in the computations required for this practical. This became the basis of all the computations as it included the initial mass of the anhydrous form of the solute used in the preparation of the standard solution.
Sample Computations for the Determination of the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
Moles Na2CO3 used to neutralize HCl:
mol Na2CO3=concentration of standard solutionvolume in conical flask
mol Na2CO3=0.07 mol/L Na2CO30.02 L =3.5 mol Na2CO3
Balanced Neutralization Reaction:
Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
Mole Ratio of Na2CO3 to HCl:
1 mol Na2CO3 : 2 mol HCl
Moles HCl in the conical flask:
mol HCl=mol Na2CO3*2
mol HCl=0.0182 mol Na2CO3*2=0.0364 mol HCl
Concentration of HCl:
M HCl=mol HClaverage titre reading
M HCl= 0.0364 mol HCl0.01723 L=2.11 M HCl
For this practical, the aims of the assessment were achieved successfully. The data set used provided a rigid source of data where no sources of error can be ascertained due to the lack of notes on the experiment. However, in real life, there are various possible sources of error, such as the purity of the anhydrous sodium carbonate used, the quality of the deionized water, and the quality of the indicator used. Additionally, human errors such as errors in burette reading and apparatus use can occur in real-life experiments regarding titration.
The standard solution was prepared in an exact way thus, the moles of sodium carbonate in the standard solution is considered as fixed. Therefore, during titration, the conical flask does not need to be dry because the contents of the conical flask have a fixed number of moles of the base (sodium carbonate). Rinsing the sides of the conical flask with deionized water adds more water to the flask but is insignificant because it already contains an exact concentration of the sodium carbonate standard solution prepared using the volumetric flask. Errors in the procedure may involve the accidental use of tap water during cleaning of the apparatus instead of deionized water, which can contribute to erroneous calculations because the concentration of the contents will be altered.
The results of the titration were recorded as titres in milliliters, and the data were used to calculate the final concentration of hydrochloric acid in the neutralization reaction. The base reaction equation of the neutralization reaction of sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid was taken note of, and the reaction was balanced to obtain the molar ratios of the sodium carbonate and the hydrochloric acid. This ratio was then used to determine how many moles of hydrochloric acid were present in the reaction with respect to the known moles of sodium carbonate. The computations were done by using data values, and only the final answers were rounded off to two decimal places while the intermediate computed values were used in full to prevent errors in calculations.
The final computed concentration of the acid sample hydrochloric acid was found to be 2.11 molars (moles/liter). This value is the concentration of the acid was determined by neutralizing it with 0.07 molars sodium carbonate. The point of neutralization or the endpoint is where the known concentration of the acid or base neutralizes the base or acid. The methyl orange indicator helped in determining this point from the change in color to faint yellow when the acid was neutralized. The methyl orange served as a good indicator for the neutralization reaction since it has the capacity to show the difference when the acid and base cannot react anymore due to their inherent concentrations. The final result was acceptable compared to values

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