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# Power Systems Analysis and Simulation. Engineering Lab Report (Lab Report Sample)

Instructions:

this was a power system engineering, electrical engineering, where I was to simulate a 12-bus bar using software called neplan, earlier I had done the same using digisilent, so this paper was to compare results . the results were later used to write a PowerPoint presentation for the student to present in class.

source..
Content:

Power Systems Analysis and Simulation
Name
Institutional Affiliations
Abstract
In most countries, electrical is delivered to every person following a particular channel or a system. Electric grid is what does the trick, it transmits the generated electricity and distribute it to the consumers CITATION Den13 \l 1033 [1]. A grid network system mostly comprises of cables, busbar, transformer and a generator connected together to transmit electrical power to consumers (loads). The simplified way that electricity goes through before reaching the end user: Generation, Transmission and Distribution CITATION USE18 \l 1033 [2]. This paper has been about the analysis of the grid using NEPLAN, mostly simulation. With an aim of updating the network model with measured data and analyses of load values, switches status among other parameters. The grid could not be analyzed without the load flow calculations, which shows the points, or busbars loads. Still on the load flow, it is easy to show isolate the arears where the load flow is of a particular range of percentage. This is before the faults were examined, and calculated the single, two and three phase earth faults. The last part was replacing the generators and running the load schedules once more. The important thing about this paper is to show how easy analysis can be done by a use of NEPLAN. Somethings that were found out in the research were the 3-phase fault was more severe than that of the two-phase or phase to phase fault, among other trends discovered.
Introduction
It is usually important to conduct an evaluation of the load connection in a system, to ensure the power supplied is enough and of the right quantity or safety of the transmitted power is observed as well. Another analysis conducted in a substation is the short circuit current. This is usually done to determine the extent of the short circuit current produced in a system, so that adequate protection can be established to protect the line and more importantly, human livesCITATION Est17 \l 1033 [3]. This protection, can be done by a fuse used at the transformer, or the circuit breakers used in the system to isolate the line whenever there’s that power shoots up by the determined threshold current, usually called the short circuit current, measured in KA. A substation, is named by the number of busbars connected, no matter the type of connection, whether radial or ring connection, of busbar system. This paper is meant to design a 12-bus system arranged in a ring connection, comprising of a load (5 loads), 2 – winding transformers (4 in number), connection lines (usually cables either underground and overhead) (7 in number), generators (4 in number) and busbars (12). The design has been done by NEPLAN software (see fig 1), where after design a load flow analysis was done.
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1:The 12-busbar system done in NEPLAN, representing transformers, generators, lines, loads, bus bars and feeders with all the respective ratings.
The load flow calculations are what follows next after the system has been designed. These calculations are usually generated automatically. These calculations are also seen on the diagram, where there are percentage voltage regulations on the lines,
Table SEQ Table \* ARABIC 1:The table showing the load flow calculations of the power grid in figure 1 above
Building Network Started...
...Check Network Connectivity...
...Update partial Networks...
--> Number of isolated Nodes...................0
--> Number of not feeded Networks..............0
--> Number of partial Networks to calculate....1
--Building Network Completed
...Start Analysis....
Iteration 1- Max. Mism. (Area/Zone/Network) at Equation: 98 = 1.760000e+000
Iteration 2- Max. Mism. (L201,ID=201) at Equation: 20 = 2.488383e-001
Iteration 3- Max. Mism. (L163,ID=163) at Equation: 16 = 7.920419e-002
Iteration 4- Max. Mism. (L163,ID=163) at Equation: 16 = 1.731006e-002
Iteration 5- Max. Mism. (L163,ID=163) at Equation: 16 = 1.272728e-003
Iteration 6- Max. Mism. (L163,ID=163) at Equation: 16 = 7.895649e-006
-----> Checking Limits...
No limit violations
Load Flow converged after 6 iterations.
Network MW losses = 106.972837
Network Mvar losses = -8.007721
...Assign Results....
Violated Lower Voltage Limits
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
N4 (ID=195) u% = 84.92 Area 1 Zone 1
N10 (ID=321) u% = 84.85 Area 1 Zone 1
N6 (ID=189) u% = 87.38 Area 1 Zone 1
N7 (ID=192) u% = 87.38 Area 1 Zone 1
N2 (ID=82) u% = 60.32 Area 1 Zone 1
N3 (ID=160) u% = 63.49 Area 1 Zone 1
N11 (ID=345) u% = 77.37 Area 1 Zone 1
N12 (ID=416) u% = 87.38 Area 1 Zone 1
Violated Upper Voltage Limits
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The loading of different elements (or the busbar) with a particular percentage can be separated and nodes of a voltage of a particular range too thanks NEPLAN. In our case, see figure 2, we have an orange color for the loading of elements that are over 70% and the nodes that fall within the range of 90 – 110%. By the aid of NEPLAN, we can also show the elements with active power losses shown below as well.
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 2:The substation which shows the elements of a loading of 70% (colored orange) and the nodes within the range of 90-110%.
Also, with NEPLAN we can separate the nodes and lines and show them on a separate table, see table 2, even the elements. The table shown below will be for the nodes and line results. They are also attached on the excel sheet.

...
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