Forests Multiple Choice Coursework (Multiple Choice Questions Sample)
north america forests, what affected their growth and what type of trees grow theresource..
1 At the time of European contact, the Central Appalachian Forest was described as what type of forest? What is it presently? And, what transition is it undergoing?
The Central Appalachian Forest was described as an oak-hickory forest. Though currently being dominated by the oaks, the forest is slowly transitioning to a maples cradle. This is a threat to the wildlife since it majorly depends on oaks and hickories.
2 What are the four (4) hardwood market eras? What were the time periods and key characteristics of each?
* The first era of hardwood market was the heavy cutting era which took place roughly between 1870 to1929. This period was characterized by unlimited timber production on land not marked for agriculture. Due to the availability of steam driven sawmills at the time, lumber production hiked. Also, the regenerating forests on the cleared land led to firm establishment of pioneer species such as the oaks.
* Following was the second era which began after the great depression estimated to be between years 1929 to 1970. In this era, the demand for wood greatly declined. Also, due to the depression, a lot of people left their settlements and this contributed to the regenerating of the yellow-poplar.
* The third era followed. There was no clear distinction of when it began or ended but it is approximated to be between years 1973 to 1999. During this era, there was free trade among nations and thus the hardwood exports increased. The maturing regenerating forests of the second era led to an increase in sawtimber supplies. Also, the logging in this era greatly depleted the red oaks.
* Last is the present era which began around 1999. The U.S furniture industry drastically declined due to China’s dominance of the local markets during this era. Also, advancement in technology have completely changed marketing of hardwood products.
3 Describe the arguments of each theoretical ecologists and empirical ecologists in regards to North American forests.
The empirical ecologists argued that ecosystems were independent of foreign influences while theoretical ecologists argue that succession is a continuous orderly process. Theoretical ecologists say that ecosystems always lean towards stability while empiricists say that stability has no influence on nature. However, it is evident that the forests of North America have been greatly affected by human activities. Disturbance resulted to what they are today.
4 What are NEPA, NFMA, and ESA; provide when each was passed and summarize the key establishments.
* National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was passed in 1969. It insisted on the need of preparing
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