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Defining Terms: 17, 18th Amendment, Industrialization And Urbanization (Other (Not Listed) Sample)
DEFINITION OF TERMS Institutional Affiliation Student’s Name Date 17th Amendment The 17th Amendment came to pass in the constitution in 1913, which established public election of United States’ senators by the general public of the state initially done by state legislatures. It was significant because it allowed for a fast turnover in the legislature and reduced corruption. 18th Amendment The 18th Amendment to the United States’ constitution approved in 1917 to prohibit liquors by declaring the making, conveyance, and trade of alcohol illegal. It is significant because it helped in developing an alcohol-free society and lessened poverty and criminal activities. Industrialization Full-scale Industrialization occurred in America when two textile manufacturers, Samuel Slater, and Francis Cabot Lowell, introduced mechanized textile manufacturing to the United States in the early 1800s. Industrialization is significant because it improved standards of living and made new and straightforward ways of completing jobs by increasing efficiency in the progressive era. Urbanization Early 20th century, American urbanization led to employment opportunity in new growing cities, technological encroachments in transportation and infrastructure, which transpired to improved standards of living. It is significant because all these advantages by far outweighed the demerits of poor living conditions and racial and religious discrimination because the encroachments that took place in that era are still in effect in the progressive era. 1908 Muller v. Oregon case Oregon endorsed a law that restricted workday for female wage earners to ten hours in plants and industries. It established a precedent in 1908 to expand the reach of state action into the realm of protective labor legislation. It is significant because it safeguards the welfare of women in the workplace. Florence Kelley Florence Kelley was a social reformer and political activist who defended the rights of working women and children. Her efforts contributed significantly to the creation of the 1912 U.S children’s Bureau. It is significant because, from 1912, the U.S. federal agency oversees and maintains national standards of children’s welfare. National Consumers League Throughout the late 19th century’s Progressive Era, social justice movements arose to safeguard the interests and promote justice for workers, where the National Consumers League was chartered in 1899. They achieved many social reforms in communities and workplaces across the country. It is significant because the NCL exposed child labor and other scandalous working conditions during the early 1900s. Schenk v. U.S case The U.S Supreme Court ruled the Schenck V. U.S case in 1919 that the freedom of speech protection afforded in the U.S Constitution's First Amendment could be restricted if the words spoken posed a present danger to society. It is significant because it was the first time the Supreme Court ruled directly on the extent to which the U.S government would limit freedom of speech. March 3rd: Zimmerman Telegram This was a note decoded by British that was from Arthur Zimmerman, German’s foreign secretary. It promised Mexico that it would help them recover New Mexico, Texas and Arizona if they became German allies. It is significant as it gave the U.S Intel on possible attacks by Germany. It made the United States formally entered the First World War. Treaty of Portsmouth Signed in the U.S steered the termination of the Russo-Japanese war. It is significant because it confirmed Japan’s emergence as the preeminent power in Korea. It also forced Russia to abandon the territory it had taken from them. Gentlemen’s Agreement It was an informal treaty between Japan and the USA. This meant that the United States would not impose restrictions on Japanese immigration. It is significant because it brought an immigration agreement between Japan and the United States and ended discrimination of Japanese children in schools. WW1 Initiated in Europe and went on between 1914 and 1918. The European supremacies were separated into two, the allies and the central powers. The war ultimately concluded with the downfall of the triple entente. It is significant in the current era as it has taught countries to exhaust diplomacy before using force and always know that war is unpredictable. Assertive Diplomacy Assertive diplomacy is a tactic to establish state power and posits the prestige motive behind it. It is significant as it helped in the balancing of diplomacy. Woodrow Wilson He served as the 28th President from 1913 to 1921 and was a member of the Democratic Party. He is significant because as president he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled and led the United States during World War 1. Moral Diplomacy Introduced by President Woodrow Wilson in 1912 is a system in which aid is given only to nations whose ethical philosophies are aligned to that nation. It is significant because it helped the president support countries with democratic governments and injured non-democratic countries. Espionage Act This was a federal law passed in the U.S in 1917 immediately after the United States entered into the world war. It is significant because it prohibited individuals from publishing or expressing sentiments that would inhibit the U.S. military’s determinations to defeat Germany and its associates during the progressive era. Roosevelt Corollary The Roosevelt Corollary was an extent of the Monroe Doctrine by President Theodore Roosevelt in his State of the Union speech 1904 after the Venezuela Crisis of 1902–03. It is significant because it indicated that the United States would intervene in clashes between the European nations and Latin American nations to impose legitimate claims of the European powers. Sedition Act It was an extension of the espionage act passed in 1918. It covered broader offenses notably speech and opinion. It is significant because it prohibited individuals from publishing or expressing sentiments that would inhibit the U.S. military’s determinations to defeat Germany and its associates during the progressive era. Theodore Roosevelt He became the youngest head of state in the United States after replacing McKinley who had been assassinated. He is significant because he ended the Russo-Japanese war and made America a world power. The New Freedom It was a program used by Woodrow Wilson during his successful campaign in 1912. He pledged to reinstate unrestricted opportunity for individual action and to use the power of government on behalf of social justice for all. It is significant because he used it against his opponent Theodore Roosevelt. William Taft He was elected as the 27th head of state of the United States between 1909 and 1913 and later became Chief Justice a position he served until a month to his death. He is significant because he implemented vigorous anti-trust legislation. He also expanded the jurisdiction of the ICC. Reform Darwinism It was a theory created by Professor Lester Frank that suggests that because human beings are intelligent, they can affect natural selection. It contrasted the idea of survival for the fittest and urged the government to make as numerous individuals as possible fit to stay alive. It is significant today as the government has put up measures to make individuals live longer. The New Nationalism The phrase new nationalism was used in a speech by Theodore Roosevelt in 1910 attempted to reconcile conservative and liberal wings of the Republican Party. It is significant because it inspired greater government regulation of the economy and promoted social welfare. Socialist Party Name of many political parties worldwide. All of these parties advocate for socialism. Most of these parties advocate for social democracy or democratic socialism. It is significant in the current era as its primary purpose is to establish a democracy that places people’s lives under their control. Industrial workers of the world They were famously known as Wobblies, was made in Chicago in the USA in 1905. It is an international labor union that incorporates industrial unionism with general unionism. It is significant because it concentrated a vast part of its organizing labors on freshly arrived refugee workers, whom other union groups ignored or discriminated. Plessy v. Ferguson This was a decision issued in the U.S Supreme Court in 1896. It advanced the controversial separate but equal doctrine. This led to the separation of use of public facilities between whites and people of color. It is significant today as it set the stage for current and future American Civil rights movements. Triple Alliance It was a secret arrangement between Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary. It was formed on 20th May 1882 and expired during the World War 1. It is significant today as it furthered the interests of the allied members. Triple Entente The Triple Entente was a treaty signed in 1907 between France, Great Britain, and Russia to counter the risk posed by the Triple Alliance of Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary. The settlement was later enhanced with alliances to Japan and Portugal. It was significant as the interests of the central powers are still met until today between those countries. Bolshevik It was a division of the Democratic Party Marxist meaning one of the majority. They won a mainstream of crucial issues in the second congress party vote hence their name. It is significant today as it has provided an answer to the famine in Russia and an end to the war. American Expeditionary Force It was the name given to American troops who were serving in Europe during the First World War. This troops took part in a significant battle, the battle of Cantigny and won. This movement was significant in shaping the current and progressive era of negotiating wages by of...
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