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Sex Differences in Susceptibility to Depression (Other (Not Listed) Sample)


These questions cover from the section “Sex differences in susceptibility to depression” through the end of the
1- What evidence is there for the influence of hormones in depression?
2- Give 2 examples of metabolic disorders. How are they related to depression? 
3- What evidence is there for the role of inflammation in depression? 
4- Currently available antidepressant treatments (eg, SSRIs, tricyclics, ECT) have therapeutic effects on the
depressed brain that do not involve monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine). What
are these effects?
5- Look at Figure 4. What are the differences between the synapse on the left and the synapse on the right?
Which one of those synapses has the greater capacity to undergo plasticity?  
Only use the attached source, no direct quotes or intext citation, everything must be in own words


1- What evidence is there for the influence of hormones in depression?
Sex hormones alter several elements of brain activity, which may increase the risk for depression. This may explain why these conditions are linked to a sharp decline in estradiol and depressive mood and/or symptoms. Estrogen affects various neuronal and glial processes, including neurotransmitter activity, neurogenesis, neurotrophic factor expression, and glial function. And the serotonin system could help estrogen's synaptic and antidepressant effects work.
2- Give 2 examples of metabolic disorders. How are they related to depression?
The chance of an individual getting depression and metabolic issues such as obesity and diabetes is increased by exposure to both social and traumatic stress. In obese people, sadness and emotional distress are linked to elevated stress hormones glucocorticoids as well as inflammatory cytokines. Obesity and diabetes have been linked to disruptions in depression-related neural circuits and neurotransmitter systems in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). These circuits and procedures include those involving serotonin, dopamine, endocannabinoids, and opioids, all involved in motivation, reward,

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