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Child Labour And Its Impact In Public Primary Schools In Dadaab, Garissa County, Kenya (Research Paper Sample)

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Child Labour And Its Impact In Public Primary Schools In Dadaab, Garissa County, Kenya

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CHILD LABOUR AND ITS IMPACT IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN DADAAB, GARISSA COUNTY, KENYA ISSA MOHAMED ALI A Research Project Submitted to Postgraduate school in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of the Degree of Master of Arts in Sociology- Peace Studies and Conflict Management of Chuka University CHUKA UNIVERSITY JUNE 2018 DECLARATION AND RECOMMENDATION This research project is my original work and has not been presented for an award of diploma or degree in this or any other University. . Signature_______________________ Date___________ Issa Mohamed Ali AMI8/07837/12 . Signature…………………………Date……………… Dr. Ann Sande Department of Social Sciences Chuka University Signature …………………………… Date …………. Dr. Dickson Konge Department of Arts and Humanities Chuka University ABSTRACT Child labour has remained a global challenge. It is estimated that about 218 million children in the world aged between 5-7 years currently work under conditions that are considered illegal, hazardous, or extremely exploitative. The persistence of child labour poses a threat to children’s education, especially in primary schools in arid and semi-arid areas. The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of child labour in public primary schools in Dadaab Sub-County, Kenya. The objectives of the study were to; determine prevalence of child labour, investigate causes and impact of child labour on schooling in Dadaab Sub-County. Descriptive survey design was used. The target population was teachers, household head, community leaders, children engaged in child labour and officers in relevant Government offices. A sample size of 384 will be drawn from a total population of 150,000 people in Dadaab sub-County. The study used cluster, random, purposive and snowball sampling methods. Data was collected using questionnaires, interviews, observations and Focus group discussion. Data from the field was analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative data was input into Statistical Package of Social Scientists (SPSS). The qualitative data was summarized and analyzed thematically. Data was presented through narratives, tabulation, charts and graphs. The results showed that majority, 45.5% of the children were involved in child labour while 54.5% of the children were not involved in child labour 24% of the children involved in child labour were male. Also, majority of the children, 35.8% of the children were involved in herding activities. The results also showed that 61.7% of the parents earn an income of less than 7000. The results showed that 60% of the children fail to go to school due to parents order to work, while 39.2% fail to go to school due to lack of school requirements. The chi-square p value on the relationship between child labour and performance was 0.03. Since the p value was less than 0.05, it implied that child labour had an adverse effect to schools performance at 5% significance level. The chi square p value between child labour and dropout level was 0.011, therefore child labour increase led to increase in dropout levels in the region. The chi square p value between child labour and absenteeism was 0.014, hence child labour increase led to increase in absenteeism. The findings obtained shed light on the plight of children involved in child labour. The findings were also a basis for further research on ways to reduce the child labour menace. ACRONYMS AED:Academy for Education AIDS :Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome CRC:Convention on the Rights of the Children DHS:Domestic Household Survey FAWE:Forum for African Women Educationalists FPE:Free Primary Education GNP:Gross National Product HDR:Human Development Report HIV:Human Immune Deficiency Virus ILO:International Labour Organization IRIN:International Research Initiative KCSE:Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education KIDHBSKenya Integrated Domestic Household Budget Survey KNPHCKenya National Population Housing Census MDG’s:Millennium Development Goals MICS:Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey NACOSTI:National council for science and technology NESPNational Education Sector Plan NGO:Non – Governmental Organizations SIMPOC:Statistical Information Monitoring Plan on Child labour SPSS:Statistical Package for Social Sciences UN:United Nations UNDP:United Nations Development Program UNESCO:United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNGEI:United Nationals Girls Educational Initiative UNICEF:United Nation Children Education Fund 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study Child labour is a global problem and it has become an area of growing interest. It negates efforts to attain full potentials in physical, mental, socio-economic and cultural development of children. (ILO 2010).Cockburn, (2001), postulates that around the world, growing gaps between the rich and poor in recent decades have forced millions of young children out of school and into work. The International Labor Organization (2004) estimates that 218 million children between the ages of 5 and 17 currently work under conditions that are considered illegal, hazardous, or extremely exploitative.The Kenya integrated domestic household budget survey KIDHBS(2005/2006) a total number of 1,012,184 children were working as child labourer comprising 533,197 boys 52.9% and 476,987girls 47.1%,In North Eastern a total of 17,476 children work as child labourer KIDHBS(2005/6). Underage children work in all sorts of jobs around the world, usually because they and their families are extremely poor. Large numbers of children work in commercial agriculture, fishing, manufacturing, mining, and domestic service. Some children work in illicit activities like trading in drugs and prostitution or other traumatic activities such as serving as soldiers (UNICEF, 2013). According to ILO (2004) Child labor deprives children off their childhood, potential and their dignity, and is harmful to physical and mental development. Like ILO, the United Nations Children’s Fund describes child labour as work that compromise their physical, mental, social and education development (UNICEF, 2005). Education is well known to expand individual’s horizons and to enhance creativity towards more fulfilling lives. Kenya Vision 2030, recognizes education as key to life. Once educated, one is able to access new opportunities for self-perpetuation and growth (Republic of Kenya, 2008a). Improvements in education translate into innovations in healthcare. Improvements in healthcare are critical as they enable people to live free from diseases and other dysfunctions. Diseases and malnutrition have a huge crippling effect on families, individuals, societies and a nation’s economy (Becker, 1993). Finally, education and healthcare become more accessible when individuals have higher disposable incomes. The higher the income, it can generally be argued, the freer access one has to other opportunities. The multiplier effect of education on development as evidenced over the years has resulted in private and state investment in education being highly encouraged and supported (Becker, 1993). Internationally, there have been many declarations that urge governments to provide basic education for all citizens. The shift from looking at the wealth of a nation simply in terms of produce shifted with the introduction of the human development index. UN Conference (1948) Article 26 states that everyone has a right to basic education. Education for All (EFA) has been discussed in international forums for example UNESCO Conference at Jomtien, Thailand. The Jomtien conference was followed up with a conference in Dakar in 2000. The Dakar conference led to the birth of Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) that sought to attain Universal Primary Education (UPE) by 2015. However, despite being signatories, African governments did not achieve most of the objectives set out by these international declarations (UNESCO, 2013). Children are integral part in the society; they deserve the childhood rights as it’s their in-born human right. UN Convention on the Rights of a Child has ensured that every child in the world has right to survival, development, protection and participation. Government must protect children from work that is dangerous or might harm their health or education (Article 32 UNCRC, 1989). Children are regarded as a source of hope and inspiration for future. An overwhelming majority of children in the world is deprived and denied their fundamental rights, are exploited, abused, and subjected to painful life. (Hindman, 2011). Child labour is not a recent phenomenon; it has existed over the centuries not only in the impoverished areas of developing countries, but also in developed countries until the beginning of the 20th century (Post, 2001). Child Labour is a social problem associated with the rise of industrial production. It appeared in earlier ages in agricultural societies, but during the industrial revolution of the 18th century in Great Britain it was especially conspicuous and began to be opposed (Shahrokhi, 1996). In mines, children were to crawl through tiny pits to reach the coalface, and also were to operate on the ventilation ports. In mills, this child workforce grew annually outworking others and long working hours with more intensity was the dream each child had, and this would mentally challenge them (UNICEF, 2008). There is a link between withdrawal of pupils from school and their engagement in child labour. In this study, child labour refers to any work engagements that interferes with access and participation in school activities. Work is good for the development of children; however, some forms of work have negative effects on children due to the way they are structured or what it entails. Any form of work, which negatively affects children is considered to be harm...
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