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Childhood Immunization And Its Importance, Type Of Vaccines, Trends (Research Paper Sample)


The paper discusses childhood immunization and its importance, type of vaccines, trends and risks associated in detail.

Assignment ID 32986 Table of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc528593663 \h 3Types of vaccines PAGEREF _Toc528593664 \h 3Benefits of childhood immunization PAGEREF _Toc528593665 \h 4Core components of routine immunization PAGEREF _Toc528593666 \h 4Level of childhood immunization PAGEREF _Toc528593667 \h 4Trends in childhood immunization PAGEREF _Toc528593668 \h 5Major challenges confronting immunization programme in developing country PAGEREF _Toc528593669 \h 5Conclusion and Recommendation PAGEREF _Toc528593670 \h 5References PAGEREF _Toc528593671 \h 7 Introduction In this report, we will discuss the importance of childhood immunization and what are the benefits associated with vaccinations for childhood. The study will identify the benefits of childhood immunization along with the core elements of routine immunization which needs to be performed by the parents in both developed and developing countries. Apart from that, level of childhood immunization will also be discussed in the report along with the schedule that needs to be followed for every child. The precautions which is required to be taken before the childhood vaccine will also be identified that can ensure the safety and well-being of the health of the child. At the latest section of the report, we will also identify some of the trends in childhood immunization all over the world along with the major challenges which can be faced while confronting immunization in the developing countries. At the end, proper conclusion and Recommendation will also be provided to ensure that childhood immunization can be available to every part of the world. Today, every child needs to have routinely vaccines so that they can be protected from a dozen of diseases which include polio, diphtheria, tetanus, Pertussis (DTaP), measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), hepatitis A and Hepatitis B, pneumococcal, etc. Childhood immunisation is known as a Process where a person is made resistant or immune to a number of infectious diseases typically using vaccine (Chambers et al, 2009). These vaccinations are developed from weakened or that version of germs and bacteria which can be responsible for causing the disease. Whenever the child is exposed to these vaccinations, the immune system which is the bacteria-fighting system develops antibodies which can protect them from contracting the disease if they are exposed to actual bacteria. These childhood immunization vaccinations are completely safe and no evidence has been found that proves it harms the children. Even though the reaction of every children to these vaccinations can vary, the only thing that needs to be known are the benefits associated with the vaccinations which easily outweighs the possible side effects (Chambers et al, 2009). Types of vaccines There are different types of childhood vaccines which are required to immunize on a number of infectious diseases. These include attenuated (weakened) viruses, killed (inactivated) viruses, toxoid vaccines and conjugate vaccines. All these vaccines helps children to avoid different diseases which leads to be provided on a regular basis (Chambers et al, 2009). Some of the vaccines which are recommended for every children include chicken pox vaccine, hepatitis A and hepatitis b vaccine, hIB vaccine, polio vaccine, rotavirus vaccine, pneumococcal vaccine, human papillomavirus vaccine, influenza vaccine, etc. In many developed countries such as UK and America, due to childhood immunization most of these diseases are now at the extinction level in history where every child needs to get some of these vaccines before even they attend school. It helps their bodies to get immune to serious diseases before they get sick first (Peter, 2018). However, in developing countries such as India, not every children still receive childhood immunization which makes them vulnerable to many of these diseases which result in various difficulty for the children along with their parents. Benefits of childhood immunization Childhood immunization of vaccines can be overwhelming for a new parent as it can not only help them to protect their child from deadly diseases but also keep other children safe by decreasing or eliminating chances of diseases which can be spread from one child to another. Childhood immunization can also help in maintaining a healthy and productive community as these vaccines can protect all the body parts of the child (Peter, 2018). For instance, meningococcal disease can cause kidney damage, deafness, brain damage and loss of limbs where every 1 out of 10 person who gets this disease die. With the help of childhood vaccines, children can be protected from the harm caused by these diseases. A child is exposed to a number of germs on a daily basis in various places such as preschool or day Care, school, community Centre, bus or aeroplane, etc (Peter, 2018). Core components of routine immunization While identifying the benefits and advantages of childhood immunization, it is also necessary to understand sum of its major elements. Routine immunization refers to the process by which the country offers life saving vaccines to the children and control and eradicate fatal diseases (Wroe, 2005). It is considered as a process of timely vaccinations regularly which helps the country to reduce mortality and morbidity. The entire process needs to be enabled by the health system of the country and should be maintained through a number of Management subsystems. It requires to be provided on a schedule and safety should be monitored. Therefore, the country needs to maintain possible standards and policy along with fundamental health system for childhood immunization (Luman et al, 2002). The routine immunization platform can offer potential benefits by generating policy and innovation along with having a robust Logistic and cold chain system. Skilled human resource is also required to properly manage the surveillance and regulation who will also ensure that the vaccination services are easily accessible and available to the user. Proper financial also make sure that quality and reliable routine immunization services are provided to the children. And at last, all the information needs to be collected and recorded related to the routine immunization process so that it can help the country identify the number of children the vaccines have been given and identify the disease rate for future use (Fredrickson, 2004). Level of childhood immunization Most of child's vaccinations can be given between the birth and 6 years of age. Many of these vaccinations are given more than one occurrence at different ages or in combinations. Therefore, it is important to keep track of all the vaccinations of the child and even though the doctors also keep the records, it is the responsibility of the parent to monitor the child's immunization (Luman et al, 2002). For instance, malaria vaccination needs to be given to the child by 7 month of age and pneumonia vaccination can be given around 2 years of age. There are different levels of childhood immunization which both the parent and the doctor needs to keep record of so that the child do not miss any vaccination. However, even if the routine vaccination gets missed, it does not mean that the child needs to start over with the immunization process. The previous immunizations are still good and doctor can easily just Resume the process with additional doses of vaccines (Halsey, 2001). Trends in childhood immunization Various health organizations of different countries have developed humanization programs to fight against deadly diseases in children (Wroe, 2005). The World Health Organisation wh0 is constantly working with different countries to promote Global vaccination and immunization programme. As of as of 2017, around 20 million infants did not receive routine immunization and most of these children came from developing countries such as Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, South Africa, etc. However, many of these developing countries are now introducing childhood immunization programs which have led to decrease in mortality rate among children. Various strategies have been using by these countries to promote vaccination and fill the immunization gap so that these vaccinations can reach every household (Luman et al, 2002). Major challenges confronting immunization programme in developing country As we have already discussed, most of the developed countries now have an extremely low level of diseases due to childhood immunization and vaccinations. However, this has ...
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