3 pages/≈825 words
Literature & Language
The Role of Climate in the Collapse of the civilizations (Research Paper Sample)
This paper is an integrated summary for English class. As you know, since this is a summary paper, so you should NOT include your opinion and any other outside source.!!! You summarizes what several sources say about a particular topic. The goal is to present an overall "picture" of the topic based on what the sources say. (This sort of summarizing resembles an important aspect of research writing. I chose type of order as 'Research paper', but actually this paper is more like a summary.) I will give you 4 articles (among the four articles, "Climate and the Collapse of Maya Civilization (Peterson & Haug)" and "What Drives Societal Collapse? (Weiss & Bradley)" are the main articles!!!!!) ***** The main topic is to describe the role that climate and weather played in the collapse of the civilizations discussed in the sources ***** Attribution is very important in this paper!!!!!****Also, please do not write every single contents**** Please summarizes about the topics and good to write the similarities and the differences between articles.***** I will give you a detailed instruction in the attached file :) source..
The Role of Climate in the Collapse of the civilizations Name Institution’s Name Weiss and Bradley (2001) claims that changes in climate as well as extreme weather conditions are related to some of major events in human history. Inherently, archeological and historical evidence shows that climate shifts in a distant past played a role in collapsing of civilization. The high resolution records from ice cores, corals, tree rings, and deep sea and lake sediments have continues to provide a precise record of climate change in the past that explains certain societal response. For instance, there is significant correlation between drought and collapse of Maya civilization, and moreover, the societal collapse of Natufian communities of Southwest Asia is also blamed on climate shifts. Whereas some of the societies collapsed because of frequent droughts, there are others that collapsed due to too much flooding. Drought has been a major cause of collapse of several societies’ civilization. Peterson and Haug (2005) claims that although Maya community used to experience seasonal droughts due to the climatic conditions, a “megadrought” that occurred later for a period of approximately one century or two, is estimated to cause devastating consequences to the indigenous population leading to collapse of civilization in the community. Archeological evidence shows that initially Maya were sophisticated in their hydrological engineering, since they were able to put up hydraulic structures such as reservoirs that made it possible for the community to depend on seasonal rains. However, Peterson and Haug (2005) notes that it was the lack of water, as a result of the megadrought, that contributed to terminal classic collapse of Maya. Similarly, Choi (2012) also argues that prolonged drought led to demise of Angkor city. However, according to evidence obtained from tree rings from Vietnam, city of Angkor experienced long spans of drought that was intermingled with unusual heavy rainfall that led to destruction of the complex network of channels, reservoirs, and moats that were relied by the city residents. Peterson and Haug (2005) also notes that the collapse of Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia, demise of Tiwanaku culture on Bolivian-Peruvian altiplano, and the end of Mochica culture in Peru is also associated to similar conditions of long-term drought that attacked the regions. Inherently, it is worth noting that the changes in climatic conditions did not only led to sudden changes of social systems but also it contributed to loss of controlling authority and political power. For instance, Peterson and Haug (2005) report that in Maya community, the control of water reserves opened a chance to have a centralized source of political authority that ruled the Maya elites. However, the consecutive periods of long-term drought resulted to Maya elites undermining the institution of leadership after the existing technologies together with rituals failed to provide sufficient water. Choi (2012) also believes that several different factors led to demise of the Angkor. The main factors include social and political aspects which were initiated by a shift in climate. Weiss and Bradley (2001) describes how the climatic changes that were experienced in Natufian communities of Southwest Asia resulted to changes in social, political, and economic systems that contributed to demise of their culture. According to Weiss and Bradley (2001), Natufians changed their lifestyle drastically due to the sudden change of climate. Initially, the Natufian communities were hunters and gatherers, however, about 12000 years ago, they abandoned hunting and gathering and engaged in plant cultivation and animal husbandry. This change led to emergence of civilization. The change in the lifestyle was because there was significant change in the climate from cooler...
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