8 pages/≈2200 words
Health, Medicine, Nursing
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (Research Paper Sample)
A research paper about ADHD, ITS IMPACT ON THE LIVES OF PATIENTS AND APPLICATION OF EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICES SUCH AS THE PICO TECHNIQUE TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEM. source..
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Student’s Name: Institutional Affiliation: Table of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder PAGEREF _Toc461829248 \h 2Brief Summary PAGEREF _Toc461829249 \h 2Significance and Current Practices Related to ADHD PAGEREF _Toc461829250 \h 2Impact of ADHD on the Cultural Background of the Patients PAGEREF _Toc461829251 \h 3The PICO Question PAGEREF _Toc461829252 \h 4Research Strategy Used for the Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc461829253 \h 4Available Research Material PAGEREF _Toc461829254 \h 5Recommended Changes in the Practice that Address the PICO Question PAGEREF _Toc461829255 \h 6Implementation Process for the Recommended Practice Change PAGEREF _Toc461829256 \h 7Barriers in applying evidence to Practice the Changes PAGEREF _Toc461829257 \h 8References PAGEREF _Toc461829258 \h 10 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Brief Summary Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurobehavioral disorder that combines inattentiveness, hyperactivity, distractibility and impulsivity characteristics in the patient suffering from it. The disorder affects various aspects of the patient including emotional, decisiveness, regulation and controls of processes in the body. The condition gets diagnosed in approximately 7% of children on whom it causes symptoms of defiance, anxiety and disruptive tendencies. The condition can get found in both children and adults in the society, but the origins of the problem are always during childhood (Thapar et al., 2013). The symptoms are different for each patient through commonalities like lack of concentration in activities run through the entire patient population. Significance and Current Practices Related to ADHD Let’s consider the various implications by talking about the importance of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Medical practitioners have observed this disorder for more than a century in patients with the condition (Wiersema et al., 2014). The disease can be passed over to future generations from parents and can persist for the entire life of a person. In countries like Canada, the condition is among the most prevalent making the governments channel a lot of efforts in all scopes to deal with it. The disorder impedes several developmental elements of a person right from social, emotional and economic (Hegerl et al., 2014). It presents a three times possibility of school dropout cases, high tendencies for involvement in alcohol and substance abuse in the patients and increased risk of vehicle accidents. Current efforts to manage the disorder in the communities has taken approaches that include pharmacological and non-pharmacological steps. Pharmacological involvements include those interventions that seek to handle the problem from a medical point of view using medical inputs and procedures. The non-pharmacological aspects of the practice today entail interventions like dietary and behavioral practices (DuPaul & Stoner, 2014). Medical personnel and researchers have made steps to evaluate the referral patterns and tactics that get used in diagnosing and managing the condition in various places in the world. Elsewhere medical researchers have engaged a lot of efforts towards establishing logical conclusions on the possible cause and predisposing factors of the patients to the disorder. The process of identifying these potential factors of cause and predisposition has not been a walk in the park for researchers as they meet controversial everywhere they take their study undertakings. In young children, a similar condition may culminate in the early developmental stages, but sometimes it is just the regular adjustments in the children’s brains. So medical research nowadays has put structures to identify if the condition is ADHD clearly (Thapar et al., 2013). The disorder proves to have substantial ramifications on the cultural aspects of the patient in a way that could end up cutting them off from the community is proper sensitization does not come through. Impact of ADHD on the Cultural Background of the Patients Patients with this Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder appear very unfriendly and excessively aggressive to the people around them (Sonuga-Barke et al., 2013). Sometimes they exhibit great rebellion on almost every issue in their environment. That makes them neglect a cultural system of socialization with their friends and family. They start behaving strangely while every other person thinks that they are doing it deliberately. Extended periods of such behavior without the recognition that it could be a disorder could finally cut the person off from the family and cultural association (Hegerl et al., 2014). A result is a disillusioned person who becomes worse than before because of the feeling of neglect from the most valued system of life. PICO Table Patient/Problem Inattention, Impulsiveness, Disruptive tendencies and Anxiety. Intervention Dietary Intervention, Psychological interventions and behavioural interventions Comparison, if available Pharmacological intervention e.g. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Outcome Primary: Reduced cases of disruption and impulsive behaviour Secondary: Extended periods of relaxed and composed life The PICO Question In all-age patients with Attention, Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the use of non-pharmacological interventions effective in reducing the severity of the condition? Research Strategy Used for the Literature Review The process of obtaining data and information for use in the research expedition employed a standard search mechanism for a wide distribution of electronic databases. They include Social Citation Index, Expanded Science Citation Index and Index Chemicus (Wiersema et al., 2014). Within the context of the research process, some search terms, and keywords got used to obtain available information from various articles for consideration (Thapar et al., 2013). Some of these search key works include culminations of ADHD, hyperkinetic Disorder, attention deficit disorder and managing ADHD. In addition to the above search terms, specific study design terms included clinical trials, controlled clinical trials and randomized controlled trials (DuPaul & Stoner, 2014). Available Research Material In obtaining the evidence sources for the research undertaking, there was the need to find both investigation and non-research evidence sources to help in unearthing facts and opinions about this hyperactivity condition (Roskam et al., 2014). I managed to have access to a total of seven research articles from where I derived the evidence for my study. As for the non-research articles, very many of them were available for consideration, but I chose only three for the sake of confinement of findings within a manageable distribution. The classification of the selected articles leans more on peer-reviewed articles though a section of them also fall on doctorate theses and dissertations on the topic of ADHD. The research articles include but not limited to one by Sonuga-Barke et al. on non-pharmacological interventions for ADHD, Wiersema et al. on a rate of ADHD event occurrences and Pierrehumbert’s considerations on ADHD and adolescents. The non-research evidence articles came from Psychology Today on “What is ADHD,” PubMed’s “Current practices in managing ADHD” and “Pharmacological Interventions to ADHD.” Evidence from the non-research articles had to undergo critical scrutiny to ascertain the relevance and applicability to the claimed patient groups. Recommended Changes in the Practice that Address the PICO Question The declaration in the PICO question leads to a stream of thought that takes us to the specific non-pharmacological interventions. In this context, the change would only apply in a situation where an initial approach got used, and the experts felt that there was still need for a better alternative to such practice. According to this question, the implied notion is that a method got in the line of managing the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder but did not give the desired results (Roskam et al., 2014). It could be that research expedition that came after the introduction of the initial strategy felt that there was room for something new and seemingly better. The use of pharmacological tactics and procedures in helping patients with ADHD to live wholesome lives had its share of importance and benefits to them. We cannot say that the idea of introducing a non-pharmacologic application is the only solution that is viable to this undertaking (Thapar et al., 2013). What we are trying to pass across in this study is that some elements of the later method prove to elicit better responses and consistency in the recovery cycle than the former. For this reason, I recommend a practice change from the use of a pharmacologic method to a newer idea of the non-pharmacologic approach (Hegerl et al., 2014). The new tactic comprises of friendlier and relatively affordable mechanism to reduce and manage the severe effects of ADHD. Under this practice method, patients get involved in programs where all intervention orientations focus on behavioral, dietary and psychological training to transform their eating habits, thinking paths and social interaction mannerisms. The process does not include any medical inputs or techniques. It is purely a matter of living their lives correctly without getting too destructive extremes (Sonuga-Barke et al., 2013). Implementation Process for the Recommended Practice Change The process of getting the proposed recommendations into place involves concerted efforts by various stakeholders. The interested parties in this context include all people and organizations that feel the prick of the ramifications of ADHD in their environment (Wiersema et al., 2014). There have to be representative and supportive elements in the sp...
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