6 pages/≈1650 words
Health, Medicine, Nursing
The Healthcare Systems Of The United States And That Of Germany (Research Paper Sample)
To compare the health care system of USA with that of great Britain, german, japan or switzerland and discuss ACCESSIBILITY system, financing system and give RECOMMENDATIONS.source..
Healthcare Financing Name Institution Health Care Financing Introduction The classification of a healthcare system is defined by the financing and expenditure system. Most developed countries have almost similar healthcare systems with an exception of the United States that uses a mixture of private and public programs. The US remains the biggest spender on health in comparison with other developed countries such as United Kingdom and Germany. The expenditure is based on the state policies; thus, it has a role in ensuring demand is satisfied and supply regulated through law, policy, taxes and tax credits. In 2003 US government healthcare spend 45 percent of its health allocation on healthcare (Moreno-Serra, 2014). Private insurance spends the highest ratio at 36 percent of the shares in the healthcare. In general, healthcare systems are designed with the objective of improving the quality of health services delivery to citizens of a country. The United States healthcare system is not a nationwide insurance system. The private sector takes the largest share in the insurance system covering specific groups. A survey carried out in 2013 indicated that citizens in the USA are likely to forgo care due to high cost compared to other developed nations (Schoen et al., 2013). The Germany healthcare systems originated from the concept of mutual aid society in the 19th century (“Expatica,” 2017). The social solidarity principle is embraced with citizens trusting that the government has a duty of providing medical care services to its citizens through healthcare system such as insurance. The government controls the healthcare system from the top, determine the percentage of the premiums. The common resource pool caters to all classes of citizens. This in contrast to the US healthcare system where citizen purchase premiums from a competitive market relative to their income (Obama,2016) The cost of healthcare has an impact on the economy of any country, when it is affordable more nationals will gain access. Different healthcare delivery systems are applicable to different countries based on demographics unique to each. Populous countries such as the United States may spend more resources on healthcare compared to those with small population. Other dynamics that contribute to differences in the cost of healthcare include age groups and livelihood levels. In cases of children and elderly schemes, countries may spend more resources to meet specific needs. This essay aims to compare the healthcare systems of the United States that has a multipayer system and that of Germany with a single payer system by answering the given questions. The access between the two healthcare systems for children The number of children insured under the healthcare scheme is the highest since the onset of the insurance system. Two insurance firms provide cover for the U.S. children, the Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), that offer comprehensive and inexpensive health coverage and the Affordable Care Act (ACA), that cover most children in the U.S. However, most children remain uninsured despite their eligibility for Medicaid and CHIP cover (Gorman,2017). The child cover is dependent on the income level of the family. The child healthcare in Germany is different from that of the United States with the government providing policy guidelines for insurance coverage. People who are unemployed and Retirees access to Healthcare The United States has a hybrid system of healthcare insurance systems, that is a mixture of public and private programs. The principal plan for the elderly, retirees and some disabled is Medicare. Medicare is given the responsibility of ensuring the elderly, retires and a section of the disabled nonelderly persons. This is in contrast with the Germany healthcare system where all citizens whether old or young are covered by a common plan. All citizens, that is the children, the elderly and the retirees' scribe to the sickness fund. Coverage for medications in the U.S. and Germany In the United States, the coverage for patients depends on insurance premium payments. The system coverage is affected by different factors that include age bracket, economic status. The groups considered include children, unemployed people, retired people, among other individual cases. The government pays for children’s charges and retirees as well as some percentage for the unemployed group. The repealing of the Obamacare may provide a relief to may poor Americans who cannot afford the ever-expensive services in the market. In Germany, the citizens have a belief the government would take care of their medical fees through the insurance system. The government pays a specific percentage of the charges for its citizens. In both countries, the healthcare system funds come from the government since it intervenes in medical care system (Ridic et al., 2012). The Germany healthcare system involves a single payer system compared to multiple payer systems applied by the United States. The German system provides universal access to medical services with great financing, control, and regulation done by the federal government. This eliminates the dependence on competition that is observed in the healthcare market. The information gathered indicate that the United States spends more on healthcare than Germany. The infant mortality is low in Germany compared to the US, since the government plays a central role and the healthcare system is universal. The United States’ government has made available tax credits and subsidies, to ensure health insurance more affordable for poor individuals. Referral to a specialist in the U.S. and Germany In the two healthcare systems, the patients are required to be registered by National Insurance Health Funds and be paying the premiums (Ridic et al., 2012). There is a maturation period for the insurance card to start operating for the patients to enjoy the healthcare benefits. The Germany healthcare does not discriminate patients based on disability, need for maternity services, or elderly people among other factors. All citizens receive similar benefits from insurance system as compared with the United States whereby patients are referred to a specialist based on conditions like disabilities and age among others. Referral services are expensive in the United States, especially for the poor population. The main reason for the high cost of referral service is attributed to the cost incurred in the acquisition of equipment and drugs. The unregulated and competitive insurance sector determines the cost of healthcare in the US. In contrast, Germany residents who scribe to the insurance fund can book an appointment with a specialist. They need no special documents or permit to get special treatment, all they need is to make a prior appointment. Only foreigners will be required to pay for the specialist treatment in private facilities. Coverage for preexisting conditions in the two healthcare systems. In both healthcare systems, there are conditions individuals will have to meet before receiving healthcare benefits; for instance, one must be a citizen by birth, registration, among others. In Germany almost 74% of the population is covered by the sickness fund, individuals are compelled to by premiums of scribe to private insurance that is controlled by the government (Harris, 2015). Companies and employers are mandated to check off some percentage from the salaries of the workers before remitting it to insurance firms. Thus, one is required to have some form of insurances or belong to insurance healthcare system (Matos et al., 2015). This is similar to the American system where citizens are compelled to buy premiums, though from an unregulated market. Besides, the patients must be willing to share the cost of medical care with the government, by meeting the value of the remaining cost. In both healthcare systems, there are terms, conditions, and policies in the insurance system, and the citizens ought to learn about the strategies on types of hospitals that insurance can pay and what percentage. The insurance system in both countries enable patients to enjoy benefits later on, as it acts as a form of saving. The accumulated cutoffs cater for medical services, thus assisting subside the hefty cost of access care. Besides, the unemployed and citizens with unstable employment are able to enjoy specialized medical care. The essence of the healthcare systems in both countries is to lower the medical expenses for the poor. Financial implications for patients in the U.S. and Germany The American expenditure on health was projected to increase by 7 percent double the economic by 2017. The high premiums have forced small firms to withdraw from the healthcare system, leaving their employees exposed. Secondly, most US citizens are spending twice as much ...
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