Sign In
Not register? Register Now!
8 pages/≈2200 words
7 Sources
Health, Medicine, Nursing
Research Paper
English (U.S.)
MS Word
Total cost:
$ 39.95

Epidemiology Research in Communicable Disease Chain - Tuberculosis (TB) (Research Paper Sample)

The task was to do Epidemiology Research ON a Communicable Disease Chain (Tuberculosis) in great detail. The client requested (Causes of DISEASE, Symptoms of disease, Mode of transmission, and Treatment), besides the 2 figures as shown in the task. he requested to complete the 2200 words with information that sound right. source..
Epidemiology Research in Communicable Disease Chain - Tuberculosis (TB)Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Epidemiology Research in Communicable Disease Chain - Tuberculosis (TB) One of the most common infectious illnesses and a major cause of mortality globally is tuberculosis (TB). It targets the lungs and might spread to other body regions. When a healthy individual inhales the germs, they can transmit them by talking, sneezing, and coughing, which is how tuberculosis (TB) is contracted. The study is important for understanding TB, the demography, and the laws governing health conditions that raise the likelihood of contracting TB. In this study, we will investigate the sociodemographic of TB, the socioeconomic determinants of health associated with the illness, the epidemiologic spectrum, policies, and organizations that work to prevent the spread of the bacteria that causes TB. Description of the disease and demographic of interest Causes of TB. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes TB. Although it has the potential to extend to the brain, kidney, and spine, the illness mostly impacts the lungs. Nevertheless, the CDC (2016) states that the bacterium only causes one of two illnesses following an infection: either TB disease or latent TB infection (LTBI). When a person has LTBI, there are no signs of illness or symptoms. Tests on their blood and skin come back positive. The CDC claims that spreading TB is impossible because the germs are dormant. If they do not get treatment for LTBI, people with weakened immune systems may increase their chances of causing the bacteria to become active and grow, infecting them with TB. Nevertheless, some people get TB illness within a few weeks after contracting the infection before their immune systems are ready to combat the germs. The germs wait until the immune system is compromised in certain infected individuals. As a result, those with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV, are more susceptible to TB. Symptoms of TB disease. People who have TB may have unpleasant coughs for at least three weeks. Chest discomfort may go with the coughs and the sputum may have a bloody tint. Other signs include weakness, fever, appetite loss, weight loss, chills, and nocturnal sweats (CDC-2, 2020). When a medical professional diagnose them, blood and skin tests reveal the infection. Additionally, the diagnosis was supported by abnormal chest X-rays and a positive sputum smear. People with LTBI do not feel ill or exhibit any symptoms. Mode of transmission. When someone with TB of the throat or lungs speaks, sneezes, sings, or coughs, small droplets are discharged into the air, which can transfer the TB bacterium to a healthy person. Only after breathing the bacterium may a healthy person get the illness. The bacteria can start developing or settling in the lungs after inhaling, whence they can spread through the blood to other body areas. Only infectious illnesses that affect the lungs or throat and no other body parts can transmit to other people. As a result, it is simpler to transfer the illness to those who are close to an infected person, including coworkers, classmates, family members, and friends. Treatment. TB can be cured. A drug-susceptible TB condition can be treated with antimicrobial medications in around six months. They need a lengthy procedure therapy after exhibiting the symptoms, which includes taking many antibiotics. Patients are urged to take their prescribed medications as directed. A medical expert who performs lab testing or medical imaging is needed for diagnosis. It takes a long time to resolve even if it is curable. There are several ways to reduce the rate of infection transmission. Better international ventilation, immunization against the bacterium, and basic personal hygiene practices like covering the mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing are a few of them. The demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence) The CDC reports that there were 7174 cases in the United States in 2020, translating to a rate of infection of 2.2% per 100,000 individuals. According to the statistics, it has significantly decreased from 2019, when it was 2.7 per 100,000 people, at a rate of 20%. The CDC reports that the disease's incidence rate decreased from 52.6 in 1953 to 3.4 in 2011 to 2.2 in 2020. It is uncertain, nevertheless, if the current COVID-19 epidemic or a decline in TB infections contributed to the decreased incidence in 2020. There are around 13 million persons who have LTBI. Research claims that the death rate for tuberculosis is 0.2/per 100,000. (Beavers et al., 2018). Nevertheless, there is a dearth of data on TB-related mortality, and current studies solely use death certificates—which sometimes classify data incorrectly—as their main source of information. 77% of TB-related fatalities among patients occur in the United States, whereas 23% are unrelated to the illness (Beavers et al., 2018). Although the disease-causing germs may infect everyone, some populations are more vulnerable. Health, socioeconomic, and demographic variety are the main causes of the disparity. According to the data, the risk is highest for non-Hispanic Asians (35.6%), followed by non-Hispanic Blacks (19.6%), non-Hispanic Whites (11.0%), and Hispanics (29.7%). (CDC-3, 2021). Where there are more cases of the disease, the prevalence is higher. Diabetes mellitus and HIV/AIDS are two medical disorders that might raise risks. People who reside in shared airspace and crowded areas, such as long-term care facilities, correctional facilities, homeless shelters, and detention facilities, are more susceptible to contracting tuberculosis (TB) (CDC-3, 2021). The law mandates that anybody acquiring empiric multi-drug treatment or suspected of having the disease must notify TB control facilities within one day. To take the required safeguards, healthcare providers and laboratory inspectors must record cases with their divisions within twenty-four hours. Social Determinants of health and their contribution to the Development of the TB Disease The socioeconomic determinants of health show that various demographic groups have distinct prevalence rates. These include housing, environmental circumstances, geographic considerations, cultural obstacles to health access, food shortages and malnutrition, housing, and financial considerations. They establish the disease's geographic dissemination. For instance, inadequate ventilation caused by housing restrictions and limited access to healthcare because of financial limits might cause illness in those sharing a home with an infected individual. Risk factor management calls for work and cooperation with organizations outside the health sector. Exposure, development, diagnosis, care, and recovery are crucial markers of illness etiology. Figure 1: Framework for TB upstream social determinants and risk factors Minority populations in the United States were engaged in over 89% of reported illnesses in 2020. Additionally, there is a 71.5% infection risk for those who were not born in the United States. Geographically speaking, Alaska has the highest rate—roughly 7.9—while Maryland has the lowest—roughly 2.5. To assure fairness by reducing illness risks, the CDC uses state statistics to give measurements and track infection rates across the US. Epidemiological triangle Host factors, agent factors, environmental factors The host variables make certain people more susceptible to developing TB. Genetics, demography, socioeconomic, and occupational differences, drinking, smoking, and illnesses like HIV, diabetes, and cancer that lower body immunity are among them. Bacteria are the culprit behind TB. Social variables are among the environmental risk factors that increase the likelihood of contracting TB (Garcon, 2020). These elements include those relating to biology, socioeconomics, and inequality. Socially active lifestyles, particularly those that draw a sizable audience, raise the risk of infection. The two main causes of greater infection rates in populations are unemployment and substandard housing. According to research by Garcon (2020), biological variables could encompass disruption of macrophage cells, drug-induced liver damage, and other agents that reduce the efficiency of medications. These aspects may make treatment more difficult and infection spread more widely. Figure 2: The host factors, agent factors, and environmental factors as they relate to TB Special considerations or notifications for the community, school, and general population Health professionals can alert authorities in the destination countries if a patient with TB travels there to ensure the patient receives ongoing treatment and care (CDC-4, 2020). The warning will be very helpful in preventing clinical recurrence and drug resistance. The healthcare professionals also provide patients suggestions on where to receive medical treatment as well as help from friends and family. A copy of the patient's diagnostic report, digital radiographic pictures, CT scans, chest X-rays, a flow chart for therapy, a summary statement of the treatment plan, and contact information are also included (CDC-4, 2020). To prevent a treatment pause, the patient can also get an acceptable dose. Care is coordinated between the United States and other nations via TB Net and Cure-TB. The Role of the community health nurse and the Significance of demographic data Health authorities in every state in the US are in charge of controlling the spread of TB and treating patients once they are identified. But because it's such a complicated project, several parties need to work together. Clinicians, hospitals, community health centers, educational and penal institutions, biotechnology companies, and medical organizations are some of these stakeholders. In contact inquiry, clinical assessment, monitoring and evaluation, demograp...
Get the Whole Paper!
Not exactly what you need?
Do you need a custom essay? Order right now:

Other Topics:

  • Relationship Between Age and Plasma Glucose Concentration in Diabetic Patients
    Description: Diabetes is a prevalent chronic metabolic disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. It is a significant public health concern that can lead to several complications, including cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, and retinopathy. The disease is characterized by elevated blood sugar levels...
    7 pages/≈1925 words| 6 Sources | APA | Health, Medicine, Nursing | Research Paper |
  • Relationship Between Age and Plasma Glucose Concentration in Diabetic Patients
    Description: Diabetes is a prevalent chronic metabolic disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. It is a significant public health concern that can lead to several complications, including cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, and retinopathy. The disease is characterized by elevated blood sugar levels...
    7 pages/≈1925 words| 6 Sources | APA | Health, Medicine, Nursing | Research Paper |
  • Mandated Paid Family Medical Leave for the United States
    Description: The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) is a federal statute that provides eligible employees with unpaid time off to deal with specific medical situations. The federal FMLA provides eligible employees with up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave in a 12-month period for specified reasons, such as the birth or ...
    2 pages/≈550 words| 4 Sources | APA | Health, Medicine, Nursing | Research Paper |
Need a Custom Essay Written?
First time 15% Discount!