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About The Transformational Journey Of A Public Health Administrator (Research Paper Sample)


This was a reflection paper about the transformational journey of a public health administrator and the leadership skills he gained through experience and education in the course of his career. He starts as a transactional leader who uses his skills to transform the payment processing department in the health facility. Along the way, he enrols for a masters degree in public administration and puts the transformational leadership skills to task by transforming poor performing health care facility and finally gains enough leadership and management skills to acquire and operate his own health care facility. He coins the term "entremotional" leadership as a descriptive term for a continuously evolving and adaptable leader. The paper integrates multiple theoretical perspectives to explain the rationale behind most of the decisions he made.


Andrews University
Leadership and Educational Administration Department
Reflection Paper for Competency 2 and 6d
Change Agent and Leadership
Presented in Partial Fulfillment
of the Competency Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy in Leadership
Table of Contents
TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Section 1. Introduction3
Key Definitions3
Section 2. Leadership Theory8
Development of Transformational Leadership Theory9
Why Transformational Leadership is Important12
Counterargument: The Case for Transactional Leadership14
Section 3. Personal Leadership Reflection20
Empirically Attested Leadership Orientations20
Strengths Finder Results20
Personality Type23
Emotional Intelligence24
Leadership Reflection and Narration25
Future-Oriented Leadership Reflections37
Entremational Leadership39
Summative Conclusion40
Reflection Paper
Section 1. Introduction
I have been involved at every level of management and leadership for various health cate facilities—including intermediate health care, rehabilitative care, and nursing facilities—for nearly 27 years. My first relevant position in the field of healthcare administration dates back to 1990, when I was hired by Berkley Manor / Life Care Centers of America in Denver, Colorado. Currently, I am President and owner of Friendship Health and Rehab in Pewee Valley, Kentucky. Over the years, I have steadily risen in responsibility levels and accumulated a substantial amount of in-the-trenches knowledge of healthcare facility leadership. In writing this reflection paper, one of my main challenges was to be able to integrate my numerous and varied leadership experiences with what I have learned from the scholarly literature. I addressed the challenge by identifying a unifying theme, that of change management, and then using it to organize my (a) discussion of the leadership literature, (b) reflection on my leadership experiences, and (c) synthesis of theory and experience into a single leadership perspective of being a chance agent. As part of this discussion, I will also discuss what I call ‘entremational leadership,’ a blending of entrepreneurial, transformational and service leadership, and a term that I have copyrighted.
Key Definitions
Before proceeding to the body of the reflection paper, it would be useful to define leadership, particularly in a manner that can differentiate leadership from management. Forster offered a particular resonant definition of leadership and also distinguished leadership from management. According to Forster,
Leadership is usually concerned with what needs to be done—management often focuses on how things should be done. Hence, a manager would focus on how quickly and efficiently an employee climbs up and down a ladder to perform a task. A leader would be primarily concerned with determining whether the task was appropriate in the first place, or if the ladder was leaning against the right wall, or if there was a better way to get up the wall. ADDIN EN.CITE Forster20058445(Forster, 2005, p. 5)8448446Forster, N.Maximum performance2005New York, NYEdward Elgar(Forster, 2005, p. 5).
This definition is useful for defining leadership in terms of strategy and responsibility. However, in this definition, Forster offers a description of, rather than a prescription for, leadership. A more active definition of leadership is also needed, one in which there is more specific content about what leadership ought to consist of.
Another definition of leadership was offered by Kouzes and Posner (2006) in terms of the five practices of leadership ADDIN EN.CITE Kouzes200614162(Kouzes & Posner, 2006, p. 2)141614166Kouzes, James MPosner, Barry ZThe leadership challenge2006New York, NYJohn Wiley & Sons0787964212(Kouzes & Posner, 2006, p. 2):
1 Model the way
2 Inspire a shared vision
3 Challenge the process
4 Enable others to act
5 Encourage the heart
The leadership definition provided by Kouzes and Posner is more in alignment with the literature I will be reviewing and also with my own orientations as a leader. In particular, the leadership definition provided by Kouzes and Posner is in alignment with transformational leadership, which is the kind of leadership to which I paid the most attention in the reflection paper. Transformational leadership has been defined as follows:
As its name implies, transformational leadership is a process that changes and transforms people. It is concerned with emotions, values, ethics, standards, and long-term goals. It includes assessing followers’ motives, satisfying their needs, and treating them as full human beings. Transformational leadership involves an exceptional form of influence that moves followers to accomplish more than what is usually expected of them. ADDIN EN.CITE Northouse20101424171(Northouse, 2010, p. 171)142414246Northouse, P.Leadership: theory and practice2010Thousand Oaks, CASage(Northouse, 2010, p. 171)
As acknowledged in the second section of the literature review, transformational leadership is not the only type of leadership. However, there is a consensus in the literature ADDIN EN.CITE (Arnold, Barling, & Kelloway, 2001; Barling, Weber, & Kelloway, 1996; Bass & Avolio, 1990; Effelsberg, Solga, & Gurt, 2014; Marks & Printy, 2003; Pearce & Sims Jr, 2002; Piccolo & Colquitt, 2006; Ross, Fitzpatrick, Click, Krouse, & Clavelle, 2014; Spreitzer, Perttula, & Xin, 2005) that transformational leadership is the most important kind of leadership. Moreover, transformational leadership encompasses my leadership style and the effects of my leadership. Therefore, I will be adopting Northouse’s (2010) definition of leadership, with reference to Kouzes and Posner’s (2006) general definition of the five practices of leadership and Forster’s (2005) definition of the difference between leadership and managerial activities. However, I will also be defining and focusing upon transactional leadership as a plausible alternative to transformational leadership in specific scenarios.
Another necessary definition is that of ethical leadership. There are six factors ADDIN EN.CITE Mey20145481(Mey, Lloyd, & Ramalingum, 2014; Morrison, 2006)5481548117Mey, MichelleLloyd, HendrikRamalingum, KomanEthical Leadership Essential for an Ethical EnvironmentMediterranean Journal of Social SciencesMediterranean Journal of Social Sciences89752020142039-2117/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/3812/3735Morrison200634363436343617Morrison, AllenEthical standards and global leadershipAdvances in Global LeadershipAdvances in global leadership165-17942006(Mey, Lloyd, & Ramalingum, 2014; Morrison, 2006) related to ethical leadership: Character, actions, goals, honesty, power, and values. Each of these factors plays a role in ethical leadership. Character is important because it is a root of ethical behavior; although there is evidence that ethical leadership can be practiced by people who lack an affective affinity for ethics, it seems that people who already possess ethical (that is, magnanimous, conscientious, and honest) characters make better ethical leaders ADDIN EN.CITE Mey20145481(Mey et al., 2014)5481548117Mey, MichelleLloyd, HendrikRamalingum, KomanEthical Leadership Essential for an Ethical EnvironmentMediterranean Journal of Social SciencesMediterranean Journal of Social Sciences89752020142039-2117/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/3812/3735(Mey et al., 2014). Actions are important because they represent the actual fruits of ethical leadership, that is, the tangible outcomes by which such leadership can be evaluated ADDIN EN.CITE Spears19954188(Spears, 1995)418841886Spears, L.Reflections on leadership: How Robert K. Greenleaf's theory of Servant-leadership influenced today's top management thinkers1995New York, NYWiley(Spears, 1995). An ethical person whose actions are unethical is not practicing ethical leadership. Goals are important because ethical leadership is itself an aspiration; oftentimes, the conditions to practice ethical leadership do not exist, in which the ethical leader has to set, and meet, goals related to creating an environment that is actually conducive to ethical leadership ADDIN EN.CITE Russell20011428(Russell, 2001)1428142817Russell, Robert FThe role of values in servant leadershipLeadership & Organization Development JournalLeadership & Organization Development Journal76-8422220010143-7739(Russell, 2001). Honesty is important because it is a fundamental component of an ethical character ADDIN EN.CITE Fernando20093863(Fernando, 2009)386338636Fernando, A.C.Business ethics2009New York, NYPearson(Fernando, 2009). Without honesty, an ethical character is weakened, and the leader is less likely to take ethical actions. Power matters because, without it, the ethical leader cannot be effective ADDIN EN.CITE Forster2005844(Forster, 2005)8448446Forster, N.Maximum performance2005New York, NYEdward Elgar(Forster, 2005). A disempowered ethical leader is unlikely to create an environment or culture conducive to the practice of ethical leadership, or to be able to lead followers in an ethical manner. Values matter because they are also part of the bedrock of ethical character, and also because honesty is an example of an ethical value ADDIN EN.CITE (Graham, 1991; Russell, 2001; Russell & Stone, 2002; Sendjaya & Sarros, 2002; van Dierendonck & Patterson, 2015). Thus, all six components of ethical leadership are important in their own right, and they also happen to be interconnected to each other in the various ways discussed above. Ethical l...
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